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Capstone Projects

Cultural eutrophication of Lower Saint Regis Lake using diatoms and organic content as indicators of eutrophication.

Tue, 04/28/2020 - 12:06
Abstract: Cultural eutrophication can greatly affect water quality, leading to algae blooms and can affect fish communities. Throughout the history of Paul Smith’s Hotel and College, development along Lower St. Regis lake has led to increases in eutrophic conditions, which has detrimental effects on water quality. In this study, a sediment core from Lower St. Regis Lake was analyzed to determine when past eutrophication events occurred. This was accomplished using species counts of diatoms from every 1.0 cm of sediment. The relative abundance of diatom species such as Tabellaria flocculosa, Asterionella formosa, and Fragilaria crotonensis were used as indicators of more eutrophic conditions. Loss on ignition (LOI) was also used to measure the organic content in the sediment at increments of 0.5 cm. The higher percent lost on ignition indicates higher productivity in the lake and more eutrophic conditions. Some samples from the sediment core were also dated using lead-210 to create a timeline that could be compared to known dates of events occurring along the lake that could have affected the trophic status of Lower St. Regis Lake. There was a sudden spike in the relative abundance of F. crotonensis and an increase in organic content at a depth of 20 cm in the core, indicating that conditions became more eutrophic. Based on the lead-210 dates, this spike in F. crotonensis and organic content occurred between 1898 and 1908, when development around the lake was increasing and Paul Smith’s Hotel added indoor plumbing with poor wastewater treatment practices.
Access: Yes
Literary Rights: Off
Major: Biology
Year: 2020
File Attachments: Capstone_0.docx
Authors: Lydia Harvey

Zack Nation: Lake Placid's Newest Oddity

Wed, 05/06/2020 - 12:12
Abstract: My project was done to help show and confirm what Zack Nation: A Pop Culture Odyssey would have to do to break free of all loans and go from a dependent company to an independent one. The work at Zack Nation has been done over the course of three years. Two and a half years went by before I came on board to help advertise and manage the company. The current loan is upwards of $400,000 from one man who shall remain nameless for legal reasons. He also owns a business in Lake Placid and was the man who brought Zack Delia, owner of Zack Nation into Lake Placid and into business. In respect for us at Zack Nation all names other than mine and Zack Delia will not be used in the project.
Access: No
Literary Rights: Off
Major: Business Management and Entrepreneurial Studies
Year: 2020
File Attachments: The Author has selected not to publish this complete work.
Authors: Me

Hermit Hill Vintage Business Strategy

Wed, 05/13/2020 - 13:55
Abstract: Our capstone project was to help a local business in Hermit Hill Vintage Antiques with a business strategy and marketing plan. Through this we created ways for them to increase the number of customers as well as create a social media presence. We looked at their current business strategy, then created a new revamped one for Hermit Hill Vintage with a higher focus on marketing with many suggestions.
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Literary Rights: Off
Major: Business Management and Entrepreneurial Studies
Year: 2020
Authors: Nicholas McCabe
Melanie Montealegre

Vegetarian and Plant-Based Food

Tue, 05/05/2020 - 10:01
Abstract: Serving Vegetarian and Plant-Based food in a Restaurant
Access: Yes
Literary Rights: Off
Major: Culinary Arts and Service Management
Year: 2020
File Attachments: Finished Capstone .docx
Authors: Abigayle Brietzke

The Influence of Microtopography on the Spatial Distribution of Peatland Plants

Mon, 04/27/2020 - 13:01
Abstract: Microtopography in peatlands creates structural patterns within the environment that, if understood, could allow for more comprehensive wetland management and restoration plans to be constructed. The objectives of this study are to determine: 1) the spatial scale at which microtopography occurs on in Adirondack peatlands; 2) if hummock size changes in relation to the distance from the forested wetland edge; and 3) if individual plant species respond to, or vary, in relation to microtopography and abiotic factors. To determine the influence of microtopography on peatland plants, data were collected on the surface area and height distributions of hummocks, the distance between hummocks and the abiotic soil characteristics. Plant species richness, and percent cover data were collected on hummocks only. The spatial scale of microtopography was determined to be regularly distributed across the sampling area. There was no significant correlation between the distance from the coniferous-edge and the relative size of hummocks. Plant species richness was found to be higher on hummocks as opposed to hollows. Using a combination of correlation and multiple regression analysis we determined that leather leaf (Chamaedaphne calyculata), lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium), and common cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpa) were correlated to individual abiotic variables. The variability of the percent cover of leather leaf was explained by increasing surface area, lower soil temperatures, and lower pH; the variability of the percent cover of lowbush blueberry was explained by increasing oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) and lower pH; and the variability of the percent cover of common cranberry was explained by lower hummock height alone. Only three of the common plants identified were correlated with the abiotic variables measured. Further research should be done to continue to determine the primary influence of the elevational gradients on the plant species composition and to determine the resilience of these systems to changing climate.
Access: Yes
Literary Rights: Off
Major: Ecological Restoration
Year: 2020
Authors: Joshua T. Young

Financial and Marketing Research for Alumni Campground

Sat, 05/09/2020 - 11:52
Abstract: The purpose of this capstone was to look at the financial plan for the Alumni Campground and make suggestions for marketing. Through interviews, surveys, and other research on the campground, we were able to see who uses the campground and areas of improvement for the physical site and marketing. Our recommendations are to help the campground prosper in the future
Access: Yes
Literary Rights: Off
Major: Environmental Studies, Natural Resources Conservation and Management
Year: 2020
File Attachments: Capstone Essay.docx
Authors: Margret Montag, Dallas Olsen

North Cascades Ecosystem Wolverine (Gulo gulo) Revival Plan

Thu, 04/30/2020 - 13:32
Abstract: Wolverines (Gulo gulo) are recognized as one of the rarest, and least known carnivores of the northern hemisphere. They are the largest bodied mustelid and survive primarily on carrion food subsidies while living at low population densities. Conservation issues of primary concern to the North Cascades wolverine population include human sensitivity, high management costs, lack of policy protection, and the impacts of climate change (i.e. genetic bottlenecking and lack of connectivity due to decreasing persistent snow cover). This management plan, in the form of a revival plan, seeks to increase the wolverine population within the North Cascades Ecosystem (NCE) to a more sustainable size. Objectives to reach this goal include conducting research to obtain a population size estimate within 3 years following the onset of the revival plan, increasing allelic richness of the population by 25% over the next 10 years, and maintaining the high survivorships at all wolverine age classes for 20 years. To maximize efficiency, while also minimizing cost, the population estimation will be conducted based on data collection from scatdetection dog teams and live-trapping wolverines with log-cabin style box traps. Due to the contingency of subsequent objectives, log-cabin live-trapping is also beneficial as it presents the opportunity to directly handle wolverines and deploy radio collars. To increase allelic richness of the wolverine population, individuals from the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem in Montana will be translocated to supplement the gene pool. To ensure gene flow and promote connectivity within the population, habitat corridors will also be created utilizing living tree fences that promote snow accumulation and persistence that is favored for wolverine dispersal. To maintain survivorship rates (68% for juveniles, 92% for subadults, 91% for adults) actions taken will slightly increase survival, creating a buffer zone to prevent decreased survival at any age class. Specific actions include petitioning for state and/or federal protection under the Endangered Species Act to designate critical habitat and ultimately prevent disturbance and decreasing infanticidal mortality events utilizing a Radio Activated Guard (RAG) depredation deterrent system. Management actions will increase the population to a size that is accepted by stakeholders and financially feasible based on a habitat suitability model of the North Cascades Ecosystem.
Access: Yes
Literary Rights: Off
Major: Fisheries and Wildlife Science
Year: 2020
Authors: Jacob Harvey

Forty-year Kinosternon angustipons (Central American mud turtle) Management Plan in Nicaragua

Thu, 04/30/2020 - 14:18
Abstract: Kinosternon angustipons (Central American/ narrow bridged mud turtle) is a mud turtle native to Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama. There is limited primary scientific information available except for the initial species description. K. angustipons and other native turtles are threatened by illegal forestry activity, pollution, and invasive predators. Through the use of a population model, the projected population will decline until extinction within the next forty years. The model identified key areas of interest that, if properly managed, can result in healthy stable population. Three areas of management focus should be; improving the current scientific knowledge base for K. angustipons to focus and facilitate accurate management effort. Improving the habitat quality will increase availability and quality of cover and food resources. Finally, protecting the nest and hatchlings will increase survival and recruitment within the population. These actions should have the desired results of increasing the percentage of reproductively active females, average number of eggs, and the survivability of the nest and hatchlings. If these areas, determined by the model to be influential to the population's rate of change, receive targeted support then K. angustipons will not remain unknown or go extinct.
Access: Yes
Literary Rights: Off
Major: Fisheries and Wildlife Science
Year: 2020
File Attachments: KOCH.2020.05.01 Final.docx
Authors: Nicholas Koch

Ten-year management plan for the Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) in Xochimilco, Mexico City

Thu, 04/30/2020 - 17:02
Abstract: The Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) is an aquatic salamander found in homes and labs across the world and yet, is only endemic to a polluted, urbanized canal system in Xochimilco, Mexico City. In Xochimilco, the habitat for axolotl was historically a lake that was converted into a series of canals by the Aztecs. The Xochimilco ecosystem began deteriorating after the fall of the Aztec empire. In the 1950’s, rapid urbanization of Mexico City led to pollution, reduction of habitat, and the introduction of exotic fish for food. These factors further contribute to the decline of the axolotl which once was at the highest trophic level in the Xochimilco ecosystem. In 1998 the density of axolotl in Xochimilco was approx. 6000 individuals/km2 and todays estimate is 35 individuals/km2. The goal of this management plan is to restore the axolotl population in the Xochimilco ecosystem to the 1998 estimate of 6000 individuals/km2. Objectives to reach this goal include an 80% increase in viable habitat for the survival and reproductive success of the axolotl, an 80% reduction in exotic fish in the Xochimilco ecosystem, an increase in the amount of sexually mature axolotl by 45%, and a 50% increase in public awareness of the declining axolotl population. To increase axolotl habitat in Xochimilco there must be refuges or cover that allows them to survive predation and have cover for their eggs. A decrease in exotic fish will decrease predation on axolotl at their most vulnerable stages of life. Releasing adult axolotl into Xochimilco will increase the population size of the next generation. Educating the public hopefully will inspire them to care and understand the factors leading to the decline of the axolotl population.
Access: Yes
Literary Rights: Off
Major: Fisheries and Wildlife Science
Year: 2020
Authors: Eddie Boyer

Thirty-year Roloway Monkey (Cercopithecus roloway) Management Plan for Ghana and Côte d'Ivoire

Thu, 04/30/2020 - 18:43
Abstract: Roloway monkeys (Cercopithecus roloway) is a critically endangered, long-limbed, long-tailed monkey that is endemic to Ghana and the Côte d'Ivoire countries in West Africa. Roloway monkeys are listed on the 25 most threatened primate taxa in the world. Roloway monkeys primarily eat ripe fruits and invertebrates but will also eat seeds, flowers, and young leaves. Roloway monkeys prefer mangrove trees to use as a shelter, a source of food, a source of water, and protection but can be found in other tropical forested areas. Roloway monkeys reproduce approximately twice a year. Roloway does not have a specific breeding season and is based on their environment. Roloway monkeys spend their entire life in the trees. Thus, deforestation is a primary concern for the survival of the species. In addition, the villagers hunt monkeys for bushmeat; villagers do not specifically target roloway monkeys but make no effort to avoid the species while hunting. The goals of this management plant are to increase the intrinsic value of roloway monkeys to the residents of Ghana and the Côte d'Ivoire and restore the population of roloway monkeys to sustainable population size. There are six main objectives to reach and fulfill the goals. First, increase the villagers’ knowledge of what roloway monkeys are and look like by 40% of individuals. Second, to decrease the amount of roloway monkey bushmeat in markets for sale by 30% within ten years. Third, reduce illegal tree harvesting in Ghana and the Côte d'Ivoire by 50% in the next 25 years. Fourth, increase roloway monkeys travel between the towns located on the border of Ghana and the Côte d'Ivoire by 40% within 30 years. Fifth, increase the information known about population size and natural history of roloway monkeys by producing five peer-reviewed papers over 20 years to improve the management of the species. And finally, increase the survival rate of subadults into adulthood by 20% within the next 30 years. These objectives will be achieved through different actions, including education, increased management and monitoring of known habitats, and implementation of new data collection methods. The completion of each objective and the effective implementation of each action should increase the intrinsic value of roloway monkeys in the villagers’ eyes and the restoration of roloway monkey’s population size.
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Literary Rights: Off
Major: Fisheries and Wildlife Science
Year: 2020
Authors: Jazzmin Wipf