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Capstone Projects

Managing a Successful Bakery

Mon, 12/10/2018 - 16:15
Abstract: For this capstone we were given the responsibility of running the A.P. Smith's Bakery for eight weeks. These responsibilities included the management of student employees, and the creation of menus, production lists and ordering sheets.
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Literary Rights: Off
Major: Baking and Pastry Arts
Year: 2018
File Attachments: Final Capstone Paper.docx
Authors: Daniele Warner
Katelyn Aupperle

Lower St. Regis Lake Survey: A Comparative Study of Fish Population Structure and Function over Time

Thu, 12/13/2018 - 14:24
Abstract: Lake surveys are performed on bodies of water to provide a health analysis of fish populations over time. Lake surveys can be conducted in a variety of ways to attain specific data. Lower St. Regis Lake was surveyed to determine the fish community composition and to understand fish population traits. Using fyke nets placed at six predetermined locations for 24 hours, as well as fishing, we collected data for age, length (mm), weight (g), and parasites present. Data was analyzed in the lab using Excel to form graphs and tables to demonstrate our findings. Catch rates were lower compared to years before and comparing our data to New York State Department of Conservation data found that our length-at-age data was lower for the six-species sampled. Pumpkinseed and yellow perch were the only two species to have over twenty fish sampled. Decreased air temperatures brought in by a cold front during the week of our sampling may have been a reason for our lower number of fish caught. Mesh size is also a bias while using these nets as smaller fish can escape, and predatory fish can prey on smaller fish while in the net. Some species of fish such as black crappie may be more susceptible to capture due to its habit of associating with structure.
Access: Yes
Literary Rights: Off
Major: Biology, Environmental Sciences, Environmental Studies, Fisheries and Wildlife Science, Natural Resources Conservation and Management
Year: 2018
File Attachments: Capstone_Final.docx
Authors: Deacon Chapin, Jared Chlus, Louis Daversa, Jon Herrman, Robert Visicaro

A Comparison of Winter Wildlife Use of Minimally, Moderately and Highly Impacted Shorelines on Lower St. Regis Lake and Black Pond in the Adirondack Park, NY

Wed, 05/09/2018 - 10:51
Abstract: Continued development and human interference with freshwater shorelines creates a degraded environment and can negatively affect native wildlife along impacted areas. Throughout the Adirondack Park, shorelines have experienced substantial degradation with the development of lakeside summer homes. There tends to be a strong preference for the aesthetics that lakes offer, as well as the numerous recreational opportunities they provide. The increased human use of shorelines and the development of anthropogenic structures has directly resulted in the degradation of shorelines in the Adirondack Park. Likewise, the Paul Smith’s College shoreline along Lower St. Regis Lake has been subjected to degradation throughout the history of the campus. This highly impacted site was selected, alongside minimally and moderately impacted sites in the surrounding areas as representatives for different impact levels. Shoreline degradation includes a decline in the health and presence of natural vegetation, creating a decrease in available food source for native wildlife. The removal of natural vegetation creates a decline in shoreline stability with the removal of root systems, allowing for greater amounts of erosion to occur. Additionally, degradation decreases available canopy cover and increases exposure of wildlife to predation. The objective of this study was to determine the difference in wildlife activity and diversity between three levels of shoreline impacts: minimal, moderate, and high. It was expected that the minimally and moderately impacted shoreline sites would show a greater diversity and abundance of wildlife than highly impacted shorelines. Trail camera data was analyzed at three sites for each treatment on Paul Smith’s College property, along both the Lower St. Regis Lake and Black Pond. Although we detected no significant differences in either activity or diversity across the treatments, there was higher relative activity and diversity in moderately impacted shorelines than minimally or highly impacted. However, wildlife species that are more rare and/or area-sensitive, such as the fisher (Martes pennanti) and American marten (Martes americana), were only detected in the minimally impacted shorelines of Black Pond. A restoration of the highly impacted shoreline to reflect minimally and non-impacted shorelines of the surrounding region would allow for opportunities to improve habitat for native wildlife species.
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Literary Rights: Off
Major: Biology, Ecological Restoration, Environmental Sciences
Year: 2018
File Attachments: Shoreline Restoration
Authors: Tessa White, Caroline Matuck, Kasey Lane, Rosemary Bloodnick, Kyle Pasanen, Annalee Kraai

Assessment of Tree Planting Riparian Management along the Ausable and Boquet Rivers in New York State

Tue, 12/05/2017 - 14:28
Abstract: Ecological restoration is, in part, restoring degraded ecosystems. By adding riparian vegetation along degraded reaches of rivers and streams, ecologists can begin to restore the natural habitat and processes associated with that river or stream. Trees, shrubs and grasses can be very important in retaining stream bank soils, providing shade in the river and habitat for terrestrial species. Two programs called Trees for Tribs and Ausable River Association (AsRA), restore degraded riparian areas in the state of New York, including the Ausable and Bouquet Rivers in the Adirondack State Park. This study compared survival rates of the plantings in nine different locations along the Ausable River and one location along the Boquet River. The tree species, living status (survivorship), and stem density of the understory was recorded. The four AsRA planting sites and one U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service site planted saplings ranging from 6-8 feet in height, and the Trees for Tribs planted seedlings at the other five sites. It was found that there was no significant difference between the survival rates of the saplings in comparison to the survival rates of the seedlings (p-value = 0.37). In addition, there was no significant difference (p-value = 0.05) in the stem density measurements between sapling and seedling plots. It was also observed that records of tree plantings were either missing, incomplete or inaccurate from both Ausable River Association and Trees for Tribs.
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Literary Rights: Off
Major: Environmental Sciences
Year: 2017
Authors: Austin Tremblay

Living Machine ® Wastewater Treatment in Sólheimar

Tue, 12/05/2017 - 15:02
Abstract: As of 2014, Sólheimar Ecovillage in South Iceland began to experience inadequate sewage treatment. After a large earthquake, the community’s constructed wetland became damaged, freely expelling untreated wastewater into the surrounding watershed. After research, the Living Machine® system became the evident solution to help mitigate this issue. By using a case study of a Living Machine® system in South Burlington, Vermont, I was able to determine output estimates of individuals by gallons per day (GPD) and approximate a price for a Living Machine® with a greenhouse at $1,019, 694 USD. Different approaches Sólheimar could take to help make this project successful would be installing a flowmeter, applying for different grants, charging tourists to use the restrooms, and contacting the engineering company to discuss the current and future piping system in the village.
Access: Yes
Literary Rights: Off
Major: Environmental Sciences
Year: 2017
File Attachments: jsetter_final.pdf
Authors: Jessica Setter

A Comparison of Fall and Spring Minnow (Cyprinidae) Surveys to Assess Overwinter Changes in Community Composition in a Marshland of the Northern Adirondacks, NY

Wed, 12/06/2017 - 03:51
Abstract: Minnows are an integral component of a healthy aquatic ecosystem. However, minnows are very sensitive to habitat destruction and loss, changes in water quality, and over predation. As a result of its integral role, an unhealthy, or absent minnow population can wreak havoc on an ecosystem. The objectives are to compare minnow species richness and composition between spring and fall surveys for different regions in the marsh, compare minnow trap catch rates between fall and spring for each minnow species for different regions of the marsh, compare mean length of minnow species between fall and spring, and compare water temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and conductivity in the fall with that of late winter and post ice-out. The study location was Heron Marsh of New York’s Adirondack Park, which supports of variety of fish in the cyprinidae family. Water quality was collected using a YSI meter in all 4 seasons of the year, and minnows were sampled using galvanized steel minnow traps during the fall and spring. Nearly all sites saw an increase in cyprinid biodiversity and abundance. Long term monitoring should be established for more robust data that can in turn justify more solid conclusions.
Access: Yes
Literary Rights: Off
Major: Environmental Sciences
Year: 2017
File Attachments: Capstone Report
Authors: Brenden Blair

The Effects of pH on the Distribution of the Mink Frog (Lithobates septentrionalis)

Fri, 12/08/2017 - 14:41
Abstract: Amphibian decline is occurring at an alarming rate. The acidification of aquatic systems is contributing to the decline, affecting habitat viability which affects dispersal, breeding success and the mortality of young. Tolerances to the acidic conditions vary amongst species, but are not known for all amphibians. The mink frog (Lithobates septentrionalis) has scattered dispersals throughout the regions in which they are found. The goal of this study was to observe possible effects of pH on the distribution of the mink frog, which is native to the Adirondack Park. A call survey was completed in 40 Adirondack water systems to determine dispersal. The pH of the lakes in which the call survey was conducted were also recorded. This study documents the relationship between pH and distribution of the mink frog along with the variations between the lacustrine and deep water pH values for each water system. The mink frog was not found in lakes with pH <6.5. Evidence also showed that the pH between deep water and lacustrine regions had varying differences that may prove to be significant in regards to studying some species. It is recommended that lacustrine data be examined along with limnologic deep water data when studying lacustrine dwelling species.
Access: Yes
Literary Rights: Off
Major: Environmental Sciences
Year: 2017
File Attachments: final capstone.docx
Authors: Cheylynne Tyrrell

Does the presence of Malus spp. increase the fertility of the soil surface in pastures?

Mon, 05/01/2017 - 18:24
Abstract: Techniques to increase soil fertility in a pasture can benefit the system by combating soil degradation and increasing the health of vegetation. The use of apple trees (Malus spp.) may be particularly beneficial in achieving this due to reliable fruit yields, ease of management, and variety of suitable habitat. We hypothesized that soil directly under the canopy of apple trees would be higher in nutrients (C, Ca, K, Mg, N, & P) than soil in areas with no tree cover. Soil samples were taken from the top 15 cm of the soil surface under apple trees and in areas without trees at 14 sites in Massachusetts and New York. Samples were analyzed using spectrometry and color imagery to determine nutrient content. Potassium and magnesium concentrations were found to be significantly higher in under-canopy samples. Further research may expand these results and determine if the application of apple trees can be used to increase the health of pasture systems.
Access: Yes
Literary Rights: Off
Major: Environmental Sciences, Forestry
Year: 2017
File Attachments: capstone_gumbartpayson.pdf
Authors: Julia Payson, Ryan Gumbart

The Age and Origin of Lake Ejagham, Cameroon: 9,000-Year-Old Sediment Evidence Suggests Possible Bolide Impactor

Tue, 05/02/2017 - 15:18
Abstract: Lake Ejagham is a relatively small lake (54 hectares) located in the south-western region of Cameroon, Africa. Two sediment cores, EJ1 and EJ2, were extruded in 1987 by Dr. Dan Livingstone, preserved, and analyzed in 2016. Sediment and diatom analyses were performed in conjunction with radiocarbon dating, which suggests the maximum age of the lake itself is about 9,000 years old. The age of the lake was confirmed by both the radiocarbon dating of the sediment as well as the dating of wood fragments found at the base of the EJ2 core. The diatom analyses indicate that in recent times high percentages of planktonic diatoms were present, which suggests a relatively wetter hydroclimate than in the past. In the mid-section of EJ1 those planktonic diatom percentages were lower, which indicates drier climates or changes to the lacustrine environment. The consistency in the sediment and climate record suggest that Lake Ejagham has been uninterrupted by environmental catastrophes, which provided suitable conditions for endemic cichlids to evolve via sympatry, particularly Coptodon ejagham. Lake Ejagham has been thought to have formed as a solution basin, when water dissolves and carries away underground minerals forming a depression. Instead, the bedrock beneath the lake contains both soluble and insoluble layers, which prevent this from happening. Here we assert that the EJ1 and EJ2 cores support an alternative origin, possibly from a bolide impactor, however this is not conclusive.
Access: Yes
Literary Rights: Off
Major: Environmental Sciences
Year: 2017
Authors: Kenneth B. Alton

Creating a Reliable Surveying Network: Does Adding New Survey Control Points to Paul Smith’s College Campus Enhance its Current Network?

Tue, 12/05/2017 - 18:48
Abstract: The goal of the project was to improve the current geometry of the Paul Smith’s College surveying network. Four new survey control points were added to the current network allowing for new connectivity to old control points. Previously, there was a Westside network and an Eastside network that were not connected and by connecting these two networks, it has expanded the current network further into the campus. Two different methods were used to help identify the new network. A traditional survey method, a closed traverse, was used to connect the old control points to the new control points by utilizing a Nikon DTM-352 series total station. A X90 OPUS GPS unit was used to connect the new control points into a geodetic network. After the data was collected a least squares adjustment was done to the closed traverse to correct for error within the traverse. The GPS data was processed by Topcon Tools utilizing a Continuously Operating Reference System (CORS) to obtain a better level of accuracy for the network it produced. The two different techniques used produced different results in the overall survey networks and supplied different coordinates than what has been previously used by students at the college. These results gained from the project are not of a consistent level of precision and are not recommended for use without conducting more closed traverses to increase precision within the network.
Access: Yes
Literary Rights: Off
Major: Forestry, Natural Resources Management and Policy, Surveying Technology
Year: 2017
Authors: Frederick C. Petzoldt, Michael S. Thompson