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Capstone Projects

ECTOMYCORRHIZA’S INFLUENCE ON SEEDLING GROWTH

Tue, 12/04/2018 - 14:16
Abstract: Mycorrhizae play an important role in forest ecosystems through their symbiotic relationship with trees and root systems. Of the mycorrhizae, ectomycorrhiza (EM), specifically targets softwood species and some hardwoods. In this experiment, the results of a powdered EM inoculum and red oak (Quercus rubra L.), pitch pine (Pinus rigida Mill.), and red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) were evaluated during one growing season. The study compared a control of no EM and treatment with EM in seed grown trees in containers. Difference between heights of the treatment and control were recorded to see if the inoculum impacted seedling growth of the host species. Throughout this capstone the hypothesis states: An ectomycorrhizae (EM) powdered inoculum would influence pitch pine, red spruce, and red oak seedlings height and biomass for the duration of one growing season (April-Late August). Red oak control exceeded treatment in biomass but not height, and pitch pine and red spruce treatment exceeded control in height and biomass.
Access: Yes
Literary Rights: Off
Major: Forestry
Year: 2018
File Attachments: finalreport_slinger.docx
Authors: Samantha L. Slingerland

The effects of different users on tree height measurements in two mixed hardwood stands in northern New York: A comparison of three measuring instruments.

Tue, 05/08/2018 - 20:23
Abstract: Height measurement in the forestry industry is one of the most important measurements that is needed for forest inventories but also one the most difficult to accurately obtain. There are many different types of tools that industry professionals use to measure tree heights. Those tools that are used vary greatly in price and quality which is considered by companies when deciding what tool to purchase. There has been little information on these different instruments and how accurate they are considering their price. This study looked at the Suunto Clinometer, Nikon Forestry Pro Rangefinder and the HagLof Vertex IV Hypsometer. These instruments were tested in different stand conditions that these tools would be used in. This study was done to help give more information to professionals about these measuring instruments and what instrument is better to use when considering their cost. The hypsometer was found to be the most accurate in both sites. The clinometer and range finder were found to be less accurate.
Access: Yes
Literary Rights: On
Major: Forestry
Year: 2018
Authors: Leland Helms, Scott Sidney, Kyle Tallman

Comparison of 5 Firewood Storage Structures for Most Efficient Drying of Acer rubrum in Northern NY

Thu, 05/10/2018 - 12:47
Abstract: Worldwide over 2 billion people use firewood to heat their homes. The cultural relevance of the act of stacking firewood means that there are many different recommended methods of stacking and storage. For this study we tested five structures for the drying of firewood, and measured change in moisture content over five weeks to determine which method was the most efficient. Red maple (Acer rubrum L.) and Black cherry (Prunus serotine L.) trees were felled in the Creighton Hill Tract and hauled 1.2 miles to the study site behind the Paul Smith’s College John Dillon Sawmill in Paul Smiths, New York. There they were split and stacked into the five different methods, which included a heap, uncovered stack, covered stack, shed, and stack wrapped in plastic. Moisture content readings were taken from nine red maple pieces within each stack three times a week for a total of five weeks. Uncovered firewood was most susceptible to changes in moisture content in response to precipitation. Covered stacks of wood had the greatest decrease in moisture content over the course of the study, and also proved to be less vulnerable to precipitation events. Firewood wrapped in plastic maintained significantly higher moisture content than the other methods consistently throughout the study.
Access: Yes
Literary Rights: Off
Major: Forestry
Year: 2018
Authors: Talia Stewart, Scott Seelbach

Improvements and Operation of the Solar Lumber Kiln at Paul Smith’s College

Thu, 05/10/2018 - 14:45
Abstract: This paper aims to discuss improvements and operation of the solar lumber kiln in operation at Paul Smith’s College. It discusses what solar kilns are, the functions of a solar kiln, the types of solar kilns, and the basic principles of how each type operates. By understanding the functions and workings of a solar kiln, improvements for operation can be made to the existing kiln to increase effectiveness and efficiency. Subjects to be examined include preparation of wood for solar kiln drying, air flow within the kiln, the solar collector portion of Paul Smith’s College’s kiln, methods to make the kiln more air tight, and damages and malfunctions that have occurred within the first year of operation. Proposed improvements for both the operation of the kiln and preparation of lumber prior to drying in the kiln are provided, along with operating and construction information from Wood-Mizer, the company that designed Paul Smith’s College’s solar lumber kiln.
Access: Yes
Literary Rights: On
Major: Forestry
Year: 2018
Authors: Wyatt Blanchard, Timothy Volo

Recommendations for Extending the Winter Use of Dillon’s Sawmill at Paul Smith’s College

Thu, 05/10/2018 - 17:35
Abstract: This paper proposes a three-phase plan to update the Dillon’s Sawmill at Paul Smith’s College in the northern Adirondacks of New York State for extending winter use. The current issues are excessive airflow, hydraulic warmup time and potential damage, and safety of students and workers. Solutions were researched and compiled into a logical three phase plan. The first phase will be immediately within one year of proposal approval. Phase I will include installation of an added structure over log deck, two overhead doors, vinyl strip door, and two Wolverine Heaters. The second phase is from years one to five. This phase will include the installation of Ecofoil insulation in the walls and under the new roof. Phase III is the final phase and is from five to ten years after the update has begun. During this phase, closed cell spray foam insulation will be applied over the existing Ecofoil and an outdoor wood boiler will be installed. The total estimated cost for the updates to Dillon’s Sawmill is $57,264.70.
Access: Yes
Literary Rights: On
Major: Forestry
Year: 2018
File Attachments: CAPSTONE_Ray_DeYoung.docx
Authors: Emily DeYoung, Heather Ray

Drying Firewood in the Adirondacks: Development and Evaluation of Four Firewood Drying Systems for Use with the Solar Kiln at Paul Smith's College

Fri, 05/11/2018 - 05:59
Abstract: Four firewood drying system designs have been constructed for future use in the solar kiln drying process. A series of test were compared looking at structure and movement limitations to ensure the structure can withstand placement in the solar kiln. The comparison for each design was made in terms of key performance indicators such as air flow and circulation between the pieces of firewood. Proper moisture content in seasoned firewood is between 15-20%, while green wood when a tree is harvested is between 30-50%. Specific requirements were discussed in more detail, these being overall building, stacking, and drying rates with the over encompassing issue of mobility restraints. Moisture content levels were checked and measured by a moisture meter every day since the beginning of mid-April. All designs were created with respect to the solar kiln that is at Paul Smith's College for future use in promotional and fundraiser events.
Access: Yes
Literary Rights: On
Major: Forestry
Year: 2018
Authors: Nico Petrella, Grant Putnam

Does the presence of Malus spp. increase the fertility of the soil surface in pastures?

Mon, 05/01/2017 - 18:24
Abstract: Techniques to increase soil fertility in a pasture can benefit the system by combating soil degradation and increasing the health of vegetation. The use of apple trees (Malus spp.) may be particularly beneficial in achieving this due to reliable fruit yields, ease of management, and variety of suitable habitat. We hypothesized that soil directly under the canopy of apple trees would be higher in nutrients (C, Ca, K, Mg, N, & P) than soil in areas with no tree cover. Soil samples were taken from the top 15 cm of the soil surface under apple trees and in areas without trees at 14 sites in Massachusetts and New York. Samples were analyzed using spectrometry and color imagery to determine nutrient content. Potassium and magnesium concentrations were found to be significantly higher in under-canopy samples. Further research may expand these results and determine if the application of apple trees can be used to increase the health of pasture systems.
Access: Yes
Literary Rights: Off
Major: Environmental Sciences, Forestry
Year: 2017
File Attachments: capstone_gumbartpayson.pdf
Authors: Julia Payson, Ryan Gumbart

Creating a Reliable Surveying Network: Does Adding New Survey Control Points to Paul Smith’s College Campus Enhance its Current Network?

Tue, 12/05/2017 - 18:48
Abstract: The goal of the project was to improve the current geometry of the Paul Smith’s College surveying network. Four new survey control points were added to the current network allowing for new connectivity to old control points. Previously, there was a Westside network and an Eastside network that were not connected and by connecting these two networks, it has expanded the current network further into the campus. Two different methods were used to help identify the new network. A traditional survey method, a closed traverse, was used to connect the old control points to the new control points by utilizing a Nikon DTM-352 series total station. A X90 OPUS GPS unit was used to connect the new control points into a geodetic network. After the data was collected a least squares adjustment was done to the closed traverse to correct for error within the traverse. The GPS data was processed by Topcon Tools utilizing a Continuously Operating Reference System (CORS) to obtain a better level of accuracy for the network it produced. The two different techniques used produced different results in the overall survey networks and supplied different coordinates than what has been previously used by students at the college. These results gained from the project are not of a consistent level of precision and are not recommended for use without conducting more closed traverses to increase precision within the network.
Access: Yes
Literary Rights: Off
Major: Forestry, Natural Resources Management and Policy, Surveying Technology
Year: 2017
Authors: Frederick C. Petzoldt, Michael S. Thompson

Creating Universal Use for the Glenview Preserve

Fri, 12/15/2017 - 20:40
Abstract: The Adirondack Land Trust recently purchased 238 acres along Route 86 in Harrietstown. This tract of land is called the Glenview Preserve. The Adirondack Park Agency has already designated a scenic vista of Whiteface Mountain and the High Peaks. Along the back of the property is the Bloomingdale Bog, which is the third largest boreal peatland in New York. Vista like the Glenview Preserve, which doesn’t involve a climb and is also accessible to all. This poses the perfect opportunity to establish universal trails for all to enjoy. Conservation of land is made possible by connections that people make to the land. If there is no connection to nature, it could be destroyed without anyone speaking up. The location of this tract of land makes it ideal for accessible trail since there is no mountain to hike to get the view. Hiking is one of the oldest pastimes of the world. People can experience beauty every season of the year. It strengthens our bodies and minds at no cost. Hiking is a wonderful chance to feel the earth below your feet and get up close and personal with nature. Installing trails would not only open up recreational opportunities such as hiking, running, and bird watching, skiing and snowshoeing but also build community.
Access: Yes
Literary Rights: Off
Major: Forestry, Natural Resources Sustainability Studies
Year: 2017
File Attachments: Capstone_Final.docx
Authors: Valerie Hoffman

Forest Structure and Composition in the Smitty Creek Watershed

Wed, 12/14/2016 - 09:56
Abstract: The 2016 Smitty Creek CFI (Continuous Forest Inventory) study addressed the issue of creating a reliable and repeatable inventory design to examine general forestry trends and their relationships with the watershed itself. Identifying these trends and their consequences is important when considering factors linked to climate change, such as carbon storage and allocation. The objective of this project were as follows: establish 10 new CFI plots, monitor and record for signs of disease and insects, tree mortality, and overstory wildlife habitat, accurately estimate forest carbon sequestration, record understory composition in a 1/50th acre area around each plot center, and suggest methods and reasons for application in Paul Smith’s College CFI capstone projects. The study was conducted within the Smitty Creek watershed in Paul Smiths, NY with the plots falling on a transect that runs north and south. At each plot, trees within the radius were assigned numbered aluminum tags, trees were measured at diameter at breast height, and other features, such as snags, were recorded. Upon completing the project, 10 CFI plots had been created and their locations were recorded, several diseases and forest health concerns were identified, as well as, tree mortality and wildlife habitat considerations, carbon sequestration for the watershed was modeled over the next century, and a CFI project was designed for the Paul Smith’s College land compartments. The Smitty Creek watershed CFI project is repeatable and has an accurate baseline of information for future studies, and the Paul Smith’s College land compartments CFI plot design is ready for implementation.
Access: Yes
Literary Rights: On
Major: Environmental Sciences, Fisheries and Wildlife Science, Forestry
Year: 2016
Authors: Gregg Slezak, Leonard Johnson, William O'Reilly, Jake Weber, Charlie Ulrich, Collin Perkins McCraw, Jake Harm, Nick Georgelas