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Capstone Projects

The influence of a common parent on sap sweetness among open pollinated sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) offspring

Wed, 05/08/2019 - 15:08
Abstract: Beginning in the 1950s, the United States Forest Service began to look into the ability to predict and control the heritability of sap sweetness in sugar maples (Acer saccharum Marsh.). A search for genetically superior (sweeter) trees was conducted across 6 states, testing 21,000 trees. Only 53 trees were chosen to be parental stock for the “Super Sweet” sugar maple improvement program. These trees, cloned through rooted cuttings and scion wood grafting, were planted in the Grand Isle, VT clonal bank. One of the five progeny tests of open pollinated offspring from the clonal bank was established in Lake Placid, New York. These trees had their first evaluation at age ten. Each tree had its diameter and height measured, as well as its sap sweetness tested. Now, 35 years after planting, the trees were evaluated again. An inventory was conducted with diameter at breast height, tree height, and live crown ratio measurements. Of the 725 trees planted, only 396 trees remain. Only 258 trees were of size and quality to handle a 5/16” tap. Their sap sweetness was measured at multiple times though out the season. Knowing one of the two parents of each tree allowed for the comparison of the sap sweetness of the different common-parent groups. The data collected did not support that the knowledge of only one parent could be used to predicts a tree’s sweetness relative to any other parent’s offspring. The bigger picture progeny evaluations will continue the “Super Sweet” sugar maple improvement program.
Access: Yes
Literary Rights: Off
Major: Forestry
Year: 2019
Authors: Eric Mance

Planning and Future Management of the Adirondack Land Trust Glenview Preserve

Sat, 05/11/2019 - 08:51
Abstract: The Adirondack Land Trust purchased a 238 acre parcel of land, Glenview Preserve, from the Trevor family in 2016. The Glenview Preserve is located along New York State Route 86 in Harrietstown. The Glenview Preserve already consists of a heavily visited scenic vista of Whiteface Mountain, the McKenzie Range, and other Adirondack High Peaks. The property borders the Bloomingdale Bog, the third largest boreal peatland in New York State. The Glenview Preserve can be a perfect spot to incorporate a trail system to allow visitors the opportunity for non-consumptive recreational activities. When creating a trail system for recreation it is important to examine the impacts on local flora and fauna. A clearly designated trail system is the number one way to mitigate impacts on soil, vegetation, wildlife, and water created by visitors. Within the preserve interpretive signs will be implemented to educate and inform visitors on proper usage of the trail system. The unique thing with the area is the gradual grade of only 50 feet so the breathtaking views are virtually accessible to everyone who visits. Recreational activities allow people to get outside and enjoy nature and hopefully build personal environmental stewardship. The trail system will not only allow recreational opportunities for visitors but establish a sense of an outdoor community.
Access: Yes
Literary Rights: Off
Major: Natural Resources Conservation and Management
Year: 2019
File Attachments: Capstone_Murray 2019.docx
Authors: Payton Murray

Programming and Marketing Aspects of the PSC Guide Service

Wed, 05/08/2019 - 14:49
Abstract: Research the existing and potential development of a marketing plan for the PSC guiding business, including activity specific materials. As well as, expanding the expeditions or trip experience branch of services to include all season activities with the consideration of market interest and tested experiences.
Access: Yes
Literary Rights: On
Major: Recreation, Adventure Education and Leisure Management
Year: 2019
File Attachments: THE FINAL DRAFT.docx
Authors: Cody Evanchick & Grace Seltzer

Effects of Silvicultural Treatments on Wildlife Communities at the Paul Smith's College Forest Research Demonstration Areas

Fri, 05/11/2018 - 16:15
Abstract: Logging has drastically altered North American forest ecosystems for centuries. While extensive studies have been done to determine the impacts of different silvicultural practices on plant communities, minimal research has evaluated the impacts on wildlife communities, particularly in the Adirondack Mountains. Silvicultural practices may significantly impact wildlife communities due to the disturbances it causes, as well as the way it alters the habitat. We monitored winter wildlife communities in the Forest Ecosystem Research Demonstration Area owned by Paul Smith’s College in the Northern Adirondack Park. By analyzing the data collected by trail cameras, tracks and measuring percent browse, we compared the abundance and diversity of wildlife in three silvicultural treatments (i.e., clearcut, group selection, control). We also collected data regarding the physical aspects of the silvicultural treatment plot (i.e. canopy cover and snow depth) to indicate the kind of available habitat. We found that despite there being the highest average relative activity in group selection, there is no significant relationship between average relative activity and harvest treatment type. Using the Shannon-Weiner Diversity Index, we found that the highest diversity was in control/reference. Due to our limited treatment sample size, we did not have conclusive findings in most areas of our study. However, the highest total tracks and relative activity were found in the clearcuts. We suggest that more research be done on this study in order to eventually make forest management plans that properly account for both plant and wildlife species.
Access: Yes
Literary Rights: On
Major: Biology, Environmental Sciences, Natural Resources Conservation and Management
Year: 2018
Authors: Jacob Adams, Caitlin De Bellis, Tyler Fisk, Hyla Howe, Mark McHugh, Daniel Sutch

The effects of different users on tree height measurements in two mixed hardwood stands in northern New York: A comparison of three measuring instruments.

Tue, 05/08/2018 - 20:23
Abstract: Height measurement in the forestry industry is one of the most important measurements that is needed for forest inventories but also one the most difficult to accurately obtain. There are many different types of tools that industry professionals use to measure tree heights. Those tools that are used vary greatly in price and quality which is considered by companies when deciding what tool to purchase. There has been little information on these different instruments and how accurate they are considering their price. This study looked at the Suunto Clinometer, Nikon Forestry Pro Rangefinder and the HagLof Vertex IV Hypsometer. These instruments were tested in different stand conditions that these tools would be used in. This study was done to help give more information to professionals about these measuring instruments and what instrument is better to use when considering their cost. The hypsometer was found to be the most accurate in both sites. The clinometer and range finder were found to be less accurate.
Access: Yes
Literary Rights: On
Major: Forestry
Year: 2018
Authors: Leland Helms, Scott Sidney, Kyle Tallman

Comparison of 5 Firewood Storage Structures for Most Efficient Drying of Acer rubrum in Northern NY

Thu, 05/10/2018 - 12:47
Abstract: Worldwide over 2 billion people use firewood to heat their homes. The cultural relevance of the act of stacking firewood means that there are many different recommended methods of stacking and storage. For this study we tested five structures for the drying of firewood, and measured change in moisture content over five weeks to determine which method was the most efficient. Red maple (Acer rubrum L.) and Black cherry (Prunus serotine L.) trees were felled in the Creighton Hill Tract and hauled 1.2 miles to the study site behind the Paul Smith’s College John Dillon Sawmill in Paul Smiths, New York. There they were split and stacked into the five different methods, which included a heap, uncovered stack, covered stack, shed, and stack wrapped in plastic. Moisture content readings were taken from nine red maple pieces within each stack three times a week for a total of five weeks. Uncovered firewood was most susceptible to changes in moisture content in response to precipitation. Covered stacks of wood had the greatest decrease in moisture content over the course of the study, and also proved to be less vulnerable to precipitation events. Firewood wrapped in plastic maintained significantly higher moisture content than the other methods consistently throughout the study.
Access: Yes
Literary Rights: Off
Major: Forestry
Year: 2018
Authors: Talia Stewart, Scott Seelbach

Improvements and Operation of the Solar Lumber Kiln at Paul Smith’s College

Thu, 05/10/2018 - 14:45
Abstract: This paper aims to discuss improvements and operation of the solar lumber kiln in operation at Paul Smith’s College. It discusses what solar kilns are, the functions of a solar kiln, the types of solar kilns, and the basic principles of how each type operates. By understanding the functions and workings of a solar kiln, improvements for operation can be made to the existing kiln to increase effectiveness and efficiency. Subjects to be examined include preparation of wood for solar kiln drying, air flow within the kiln, the solar collector portion of Paul Smith’s College’s kiln, methods to make the kiln more air tight, and damages and malfunctions that have occurred within the first year of operation. Proposed improvements for both the operation of the kiln and preparation of lumber prior to drying in the kiln are provided, along with operating and construction information from Wood-Mizer, the company that designed Paul Smith’s College’s solar lumber kiln.
Access: Yes
Literary Rights: On
Major: Forestry
Year: 2018
Authors: Wyatt Blanchard, Timothy Volo

Recommendations for Extending the Winter Use of Dillon’s Sawmill at Paul Smith’s College

Thu, 05/10/2018 - 17:35
Abstract: This paper proposes a three-phase plan to update the Dillon’s Sawmill at Paul Smith’s College in the northern Adirondacks of New York State for extending winter use. The current issues are excessive airflow, hydraulic warmup time and potential damage, and safety of students and workers. Solutions were researched and compiled into a logical three phase plan. The first phase will be immediately within one year of proposal approval. Phase I will include installation of an added structure over log deck, two overhead doors, vinyl strip door, and two Wolverine Heaters. The second phase is from years one to five. This phase will include the installation of Ecofoil insulation in the walls and under the new roof. Phase III is the final phase and is from five to ten years after the update has begun. During this phase, closed cell spray foam insulation will be applied over the existing Ecofoil and an outdoor wood boiler will be installed. The total estimated cost for the updates to Dillon’s Sawmill is $57,264.70.
Access: Yes
Literary Rights: On
Major: Forestry
Year: 2018
File Attachments: CAPSTONE_Ray_DeYoung.docx
Authors: Emily DeYoung, Heather Ray

Drying Firewood in the Adirondacks: Development and Evaluation of Four Firewood Drying Systems for Use with the Solar Kiln at Paul Smith's College

Fri, 05/11/2018 - 05:59
Abstract: Four firewood drying system designs have been constructed for future use in the solar kiln drying process. A series of test were compared looking at structure and movement limitations to ensure the structure can withstand placement in the solar kiln. The comparison for each design was made in terms of key performance indicators such as air flow and circulation between the pieces of firewood. Proper moisture content in seasoned firewood is between 15-20%, while green wood when a tree is harvested is between 30-50%. Specific requirements were discussed in more detail, these being overall building, stacking, and drying rates with the over encompassing issue of mobility restraints. Moisture content levels were checked and measured by a moisture meter every day since the beginning of mid-April. All designs were created with respect to the solar kiln that is at Paul Smith's College for future use in promotional and fundraiser events.
Access: Yes
Literary Rights: On
Major: Forestry
Year: 2018
Authors: Nico Petrella, Grant Putnam

Jenkins Mountain Backcountry Ski Glade

Wed, 05/09/2018 - 11:34
Abstract: The Paul Smith's College VIC is able to revitalize the ski glade on the back of Jenkins Mountain. The terrain was abandoned after a lack of interest, but now has opportunity to regain popularity. This study looks at land maintenance, risk management and marketing techniques to make the project successful. Putting these studies into action can benefit the VIC as well as the college, whether it's utilized for a students education or a visitors leisure. Bringing backcountry skiing to the property is a great addition to the many attractions provided by the land.
Access: Yes
Literary Rights: On
Major: Recreation, Adventure Education and Leisure Management
Year: 2018
Authors: Cody Dennis , Austin Stergas, Scott Smith