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Capstone Projects

Riparian log gardens: examination of vascular plant communities and moss on logs in waterbodies

Tue, 12/05/2017 - 19:51
Abstract: Microsites can play a major part in facilitating plant diversity. Specific physical characteristics of microsites can create favorable conditions for certain species by isolating them from competition or protecting them from herbivory. Plant communities and woody debris can also facilitate the growth of other plants. I examined relationships between moss and vascular plants on log gardens in waterbodies to determine correlations between these organisms. I hypothesized that riparian log gardens, large woody debris in lakes and ponds supporting mats of terrestrial vegetation, serve as sites that may harbor rare species or have high plant species diversity. I also examined the relationship between bryophytes and plant communities based on the idea that bryophytes influence microsite characteristics. Knowing where rare species are harbored and what microsites encourage high diversity are important for preserving species. I surveyed plants on large woody debris in lakes and ponds in the northern Adirondacks and calculated the richness and diversity of the communities in relation to the presence of mosses. I found that logs that supported moss mats had more plants. The mean species richness of the riparian log gardens was 8.6 for all plants and 6.3 for herbaceous species. Some significant positive correlations were found for log area, log hardness, mat area, mat depth, and vascular plant diversity.
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Major: Biology
Year: 2017
Authors: David R. Lampman

Lyme Disease in the Adirondacks: Using Domestic Canines as Sentinels for Human Risk

Tue, 12/05/2017 - 14:46
Abstract: Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi) is the most prevalent zoonotic disease in the United States. With an increase of cases every year in new areas, it is crucial that researchers and veterinarians use sentinels, such as canines, to determine the prevalence of Lyme disease in emerging areas where tick density may be low. The main objective of this study was to determine the annual infection rate of Lyme disease in canines in Franklin and Essex County. An immunologic assay was performed to determine percent of canines exposed to Lyme bacteria as well as timing of exposure. Thirty-four random blood samples were collected from a local veterinary office during routine health screenings, and analyzed for Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies. Out of the thirty-four samples, two canines were positive for OspC antibodies (indicator of early infection) and three were positive for OspF (indicator of chronic infection). The annual infection rate for the 2017 year was 5.9%.
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Major: Biology
Year: 2017
Authors: Ashley G. Hodge

A Comparison of Macro-Invertebrate Communities in Different Substrates among Impacted and Minimally-Impacted Sites on Lower St. Regis Lake and Benchmark Sites on Black Pond

Wed, 05/03/2017 - 21:34
Abstract: Many shorelines today have been impacted by human activities which has resulted in changes in macro-aquatic invertebrate communities. Ecological restoration can be used in efforts to bring macro-aquatic invertebrates back into shorelines. However, data is needed to better understand how macro-aquatic invertebrates can be used in these efforts as indicator species to determine community structure health and function. This project compared the macro-aquatic invertebrate communities in impacted and minimally impacted sites located on Lower St. Regis Lake and benchmark sites located on Black Pond. The two objectives to this project were to 1) compare the species richness among impact levels and 2) compare the density among impact levels. Each impacted level has three sites and at each site ten samples were taken in a systematic way which resulted in 90 total samples. Samples were taken to the lab to be sorted and for macro-aquatic invertebrates could be identified to the family level. The macro-aquatic invertebrate community was different among each impact level. The overall family diversity was greater at the benchmark sites than the minimally impacted and impacted sites. Dominate substrate type that had a greater presence of different families were sites that had organic matter. The findings of this study create a more knowledge base which can be useful for future ecological restoration efforts on the impacted and minimally impacted areas located on Lower St. Regis Lake and to educate the public on the impacts on macro-aquatic invertebrates and their communities.
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Literary Rights: On
Major: Biology
Year: 2017
Authors: Amber St. Andrew

Walden Pond: Ecological and Anthropological History Reflected in the Sedimentary Record

Tue, 05/03/2016 - 23:13
Abstract: This study examined environmental changes reflected in the microfossil record of a sediment core taken in August 2015 from Walden Pond, Massachusetts spanning the last 600 years. In particular changes in the eutrophication status, inorganic sediment deposition due to land use, lake water depth and temperature were examined using phytoplankton indicator species—diatoms and chrysophytes— to reconstruct environmental conditions. The study site was a basin shallower and closer to the source of anthropogenic N and P inputs than the site of previous studies at Walden’s deepest basin, allowing for finer detection of changes in water level and organic content of sediment. A gravity corer was used to collect the sediment core to preserve topmost sediment layers for analysis, as more than a decade has passed since the last published study of this kind at Walden Pond by Köster et. al. (2005). Results show a significant increase in indicators of eutrophic lake conditions since European settlement ca. 1630, and especially since the 20th century. However, relative Asterionella formosa and Synedra nana abundances had not changed significantly in the last decade since Köster et. al.’s 2005 study, and have in fact decreased somewhat, suggesting water treatment efforts by the Massachusetts Dept. of Environmental Protection (DEP) have had some success. Loss on ignition (LOI) of organic content shows a precipitous decline from the mid 19th century from 37% to 22%, representing intensive land clearance and development until the 1970’s when DEP management began. After that point, LOI rose, perhaps due to increased lake productivity, and has fluctuated around 25%. Relative Discostella stelligera abundance, while used in the WAl-3 piston core as a proxy for water depth, could not be used in the WAL-1 gravity core from this study as eutrophication has significantly impacted their abundance. Chrysophyte scale:diatom ratios corroborate an observed trend of increasing abundance in lakes globally since the 20th century, perhaps in response to rising global temperatures over the same period.
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Literary Rights: Off
Major: Biology
Year: 2016
File Attachments: Capstone Paper.docx
Authors: Erik Yankowsky

Analysis of Forage Quality in Adirondack Macrophytes: Implications for Waterfowl Nutrition

Fri, 04/29/2016 - 14:48
Abstract: To understand the relative nutritional value of macrophyte food sources for Adirondack waterfowl, the forage quality of four common Adirondack macrophytes were assessed. An analysis of two native pondweeds (Potamogeton) and two invasive watermilfoil (Myriophyllum) was conducted to deduce how invasive and native macrophytes compare in their relative concentrations of nitrogen and mineral content; important indicators of forage quality for waterfowl. Nitrogen content is used as a metric for relative concentration of protein. Macrophyte species were sampled from four Adirondack lakes of the same trophic status to account for effects of lake nutrient characteristics on plant nutrient uptake and synthesis. Total nitrogen was determined with the Kjeldahl procedure using flow injection analysis. Ash (mineral) content was acquired through high-heat burning in a muffle furnace. The invasive watermilfoil species had a higher percentage of nitrogen than the native species. There was no significant difference in the ash content between the species. It is critical to understand the ecological function of these species in relation to wildlife populations. The nutritional value of these aquatic macrophytes may have implications for the fitness and distribution of breeding herbivorous waterfowl in Adirondack lakes. These results may indicate that invasive plants will serve as a viable food source for herbivorous waterfowl as watermilfoil continues to spread across Adirondack aquatic systems.
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Major: Biology
Year: 2016
Authors: Bianca Fournier

Monitoring the Zebra Mussel Invasion Front: Use of New Technology

Thu, 02/09/2012 - 15:39
Abstract: Zebra mussels are invasive mollusks that are affecting the well-being of the water bodies in the United States. This study uses environmental DNA (eDNA) is a sensitive early detection system that may be useful in monitoring their spread. The purpose of this study is to determine the effectiveness of eDNA technology in identifying infested water bodies, to determine if zebra mussel DNA is in the Adirondack water bodies not known to be infested, if the water chemistry of these water bodies is favorable for zebra mussel establishment, and if the eDNA technology is transferable to an institution like Paul Smith’s College. Eighteen lakes, all in New York State were sampled, fifteen of which are located in the Adirondack Park. DNA was extracted from water and plankton samples and species specific primers were used for PCR amplification to determine if zebra mussel DNA was present. Of seven samples taken from sites known to be infested, five of these tested positive for zebra mussel eDNA. Four lakes not known to be infested within the Park also tested positive for zebra mussel eDNA. Based on zebra mussel risk parameters (water chemistry) applied to 1,469 Adirondack water bodies, less than 3% are at risk of zebra mussel establishment. However it is possible that established populations could occur at microsites that may have locally high levels of calcium and higher pH.
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Literary Rights: Off
Major: Biology, Environmental Sciences, Environmental Studies, Fisheries and Wildlife Science, Forestry, Natural Resources Management and Policy
Year: 2011
File Attachments: The Author has selected not to publish this complete work.
Authors: Alexandria Bevilacqua, John Bishop, Charles Cain, Tyler Clark, Seth Crevison, Robert Culyer, Ryan Deibler, Brian DeMeo, Jonathan Eckert, Kirsten Goranowski, Joelle Guisti, Alan Jancef, Korinna Marino, Michelle Melagrano, KaitlynNedo, Joseph Nelson, Aaron Palmieri, Cole Reagan, John Scahill, JohnathanStrassheim, Scott Travis, Sarah Van Nostrand and Sarah Vella

A Healthier Lunch Line

Mon, 12/05/2011 - 19:57
Abstract: Unhealthy eating is an epidemic in America that is passing from generation to generation. It is becoming more crucial to find ways that can change eating habits at a young age due to the influx of marketing influences. This study will show whether educational marketing or aesthetic marketing is more effective on children’s food choices. The educational marketing will be implemented by interactive taste testing with the students, while the aesthetic marketing will be done by encouraging healthy eating with various wall illustrations and posters in the cafeteria. Both sets of data will be gathered before and after to be compared for effectiveness. Schools are currently struggling to find a way to encourage healthy eating with food that is appealing to a grade school student. If the presentation of food is part of a solution, then this study can help prove that simple changes to the cafeteria setting can reinforce children’s perception of health and help fight obesity and other health issues.
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Literary Rights: On
Major: Culinary Arts and Service Management, Hotel, Resort and Tourism Management
Year: 2011
Authors: Amiee Derzanovich, Morgan Horwatt

Paul Smith's College Bed and Breakfast

Mon, 12/05/2011 - 21:25
Abstract: Paul Smith's College hosts numerous events, conferences, and open houses throughout the years that bring people to the area for an extended period of time. Currently, there is a house on campus with a fantastic lakeside view that is no longer being occupied. Bed and Breakfasts consist of several different departments: food and beverage, housekeeping, bookkeeping, management, tours, and various other occupations. Converting this house into a Bed and Breakfast would be an immense asset to the school. Opening this Bed and Breakfast would potentially be a benefit for Paul Smith's College, the students, and future guests. This study will determine if it is possible for Paul Smith's College to open and operate a Bed and Breakfast on campus, and if there will be enough of a guest interest for it to be successful. The opinions of potential guests will be measured by surveys and interviews, and will take a look at some competing properties and how they market to their customers. The consensus will be used to determine what Paul Smith's should do to market, advertise, and appeal to its clientele.
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Literary Rights: On
Major: Hotel, Resort and Tourism Management
Year: 2011
File Attachments: Final Capstone.docx
Authors: Megan Frank

Self-Ordering Systems in Casual Dining Restaurants

Mon, 12/05/2011 - 21:24
Abstract: Communicational technologies in restaurants have been a growing and changing trend in the hospitality industry since the early 90's. The impact of self-ordering technologies in restaurants has caused customer value, satisfaction and productivity to change. The baby boomers and millennials are a few age demographics affected by these systems in restaurants. It is important to determine how willing baby boomers and millennials are in accepting self- ordering systems in casual style restaurants such as, AppleBees, TGI Fridays or Olive Garden. This data will be collected through surveys, along with the use of social media. The opinions will help to determine if these customers are willing to take the step towards a more technology- based restaurant industry.
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Literary Rights: On
Major: Hotel, Resort and Tourism Management
Year: 2011
File Attachments: Laura James FINAL CAPSTONE
Authors: Laura James

The VIC as a Teaching Aid

Mon, 12/05/2011 - 21:18
Abstract: Paul Smith’s College has recently acquired ownership of the Visitor Interpretive Center (VIC) and its land. Paul Smith’s College offers many academic programs that closely align with events and learning opportunities at the VIC. The size of the student body and availability of learning resources are growing every year at Paul Smith’s College. The Facilities, Planning and Environmental Management class at Paul Smith College is an example of one class that is incorporating the VIC into their course. One of the group projects which students are completing in the classroom is a mock design of a kitchen and café in the existing main building of the VIC for everyday use as well as for events. This case study will determine if Paul Smith’s College’s hospitality students and professors are interested in utilizing the VIC as learning and working experience in their curriculum. The case study will also determine where in the curriculum the hospitality students and the professors see the VIC being incorporated. I will survey Paul Smith’s professors and students to see whether the VIC could be a beneficial learning tool for students, as possible hands on working experience.
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Literary Rights: On
Major: Hotel, Resort and Tourism Management
Year: 2011
File Attachments: CAPSTONE FINAL COPY.doc
Authors: Kristopher P. Klinkbeil Jr.