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Capstone Projects

A Comparison of Macro-Invertebrate Communities in Different Substrates among Impacted and Minimally-Impacted Sites on Lower St. Regis Lake and Benchmark Sites on Black Pond

Wed, 05/03/2017 - 21:34
Abstract: Many shorelines today have been impacted by human activities which has resulted in changes in macro-aquatic invertebrate communities. Ecological restoration can be used in efforts to bring macro-aquatic invertebrates back into shorelines. However, data is needed to better understand how macro-aquatic invertebrates can be used in these efforts as indicator species to determine community structure health and function. This project compared the macro-aquatic invertebrate communities in impacted and minimally impacted sites located on Lower St. Regis Lake and benchmark sites located on Black Pond. The two objectives to this project were to 1) compare the species richness among impact levels and 2) compare the density among impact levels. Each impacted level has three sites and at each site ten samples were taken in a systematic way which resulted in 90 total samples. Samples were taken to the lab to be sorted and for macro-aquatic invertebrates could be identified to the family level. The macro-aquatic invertebrate community was different among each impact level. The overall family diversity was greater at the benchmark sites than the minimally impacted and impacted sites. Dominate substrate type that had a greater presence of different families were sites that had organic matter. The findings of this study create a more knowledge base which can be useful for future ecological restoration efforts on the impacted and minimally impacted areas located on Lower St. Regis Lake and to educate the public on the impacts on macro-aquatic invertebrates and their communities.
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Major: Biology
Year: 2017
Authors: Amber St. Andrew

The Age and Origin of Lake Ejagham, Cameroon: 9,000-Year-Old Sediment Evidence Suggests Possible Bolide Impactor

Tue, 05/02/2017 - 15:18
Abstract: Lake Ejagham is a relatively small lake (54 hectares) located in the south-western region of Cameroon, Africa. Two sediment cores, EJ1 and EJ2, were extruded in 1987 by Dr. Dan Livingstone, preserved, and analyzed in 2016. Sediment and diatom analyses were performed in conjunction with radiocarbon dating, which suggests the maximum age of the lake itself is about 9,000 years old. The age of the lake was confirmed by both the radiocarbon dating of the sediment as well as the dating of wood fragments found at the base of the EJ2 core. The diatom analyses indicate that in recent times high percentages of planktonic diatoms were present, which suggests a relatively wetter hydroclimate than in the past. In the mid-section of EJ1 those planktonic diatom percentages were lower, which indicates drier climates or changes to the lacustrine environment. The consistency in the sediment and climate record suggest that Lake Ejagham has been uninterrupted by environmental catastrophes, which provided suitable conditions for endemic cichlids to evolve via sympatry, particularly Coptodon ejagham. Lake Ejagham has been thought to have formed as a solution basin, when water dissolves and carries away underground minerals forming a depression. Instead, the bedrock beneath the lake contains both soluble and insoluble layers, which prevent this from happening. Here we assert that the EJ1 and EJ2 cores support an alternative origin, possibly from a bolide impactor, however this is not conclusive.
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Major: Environmental Sciences
Year: 2017
Authors: Kenneth B. Alton

Does the presence of Malus spp. increase the fertility of the soil surface in pastures?

Mon, 05/01/2017 - 18:24
Abstract: Techniques to increase soil fertility in a pasture can benefit the system by combating soil degradation and increasing the health of vegetation. The use of apple trees (Malus spp.) may be particularly beneficial in achieving this due to reliable fruit yields, ease of management, and variety of suitable habitat. We hypothesized that soil directly under the canopy of apple trees would be higher in nutrients (C, Ca, K, Mg, N, & P) than soil in areas with no tree cover. Soil samples were taken from the top 15 cm of the soil surface under apple trees and in areas without trees at 14 sites in Massachusetts and New York. Samples were analyzed using spectrometry and color imagery to determine nutrient content. Potassium and magnesium concentrations were found to be significantly higher in under-canopy samples. Further research may expand these results and determine if the application of apple trees can be used to increase the health of pasture systems.
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Major: Environmental Sciences, Forestry
Year: 2017
File Attachments: capstone_gumbartpayson.pdf
Authors: Julia Payson, Ryan Gumbart

A Comparison of Leaf Litter in the Aquatic, Terrestrial, and Transitional Zones among Impacted, Minimally Impacted, and Benchmark Conditions of the Shorelines of the Lower St. Regis Lake and Black Pond

Mon, 05/01/2017 - 17:55
Abstract: Human development of shorelines impacts structure and functionality of the shoreline’s ecosystems. Ecological restoration projects can be used to rectify this impact, but first data must be collected to determine the extent of impact human development has had on the shoreline. The objective of this study was to compare the biomass (wet and dry weights) of deciduous and coniferous leaf litter among impacted, minimally impacted, and benchmark shorelines and between terrestrial and aquatic zones. Data was collected among the three impact levels on the Paul Smith’s College property along the shores of Lower St. Regis Lake (impacted and minimally impacted) and Black Pond (benchmark). Deciduous and coniferous leaf litter was collected in the aquatic and terrestrial zones of the shoreline and among the three impact levels using 0.7 m2 terrestrial and 0.25 m2 aquatic quadrats, and then compared using nonparametric statistical tests to determine differences among impact levels and between zones. The results of this study revealed that the relationship between deciduous and coniferous leaf litter was more nuanced than expected. The study supported the current body of scientific knowledge in that shoreline development decreases the overall amount of leaf litter accumulated in the shoreline of lakes. However, should future studies on variation between deciduous and coniferous leaf litter be conducted, the criteria for impact levels should be expanded to ensure the sites used are more comparable in forest type.
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Major: Environmental Sciences
Year: 2017
Authors: Hannah Ashdown

Comparison of Fine and Coarse Organic Matter Among Levels of Shoreline Impact: Implications for Ecological Restoration

Mon, 05/01/2017 - 15:24
Abstract: Human lake shoreline development has been shown to have impacts on the dynamics of the lakeshore. Such dynamics include the riparian and littoral zones interactions; the complexity, abundance, and residence time of large woody debris; organic matter/detritus, and food webs for fish, birds, and macroinvertebrates. Understanding such dynamics, and the impacts of human development, are important when attempting to restore the shoreline through the process of ecological restoration. The objectives of the study were, (1) to compare the amount of organic matter (smaller than sticks, branches, logs, and trees) among three levels of impact (impacted, minimally impacted, and benchmark), (2) to compare the amounts of CPOM and FPOM among the three levels of impact. The field data was collected using a modified design of sediment corer. A total of 63 samples were taken and the results clearly showed that the reference (benchmark) site had a much higher accumulation of organic sediment along the shoreline. Also, the data analysis also showed that there was virtually no measurable FPOM among the impacted and minimally impacted sites, but among the references sites it was more abundant than CPOM, which was opposite from the impacted and minimally impacted sites.
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Major: Environmental Sciences
Year: 2017
File Attachments: Final_Morrill.docx
Authors: John Morrill

Planning for Accessibility in Wilmington Notch New York State Campground

Tue, 05/02/2017 - 10:47
Abstract: A paper submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree Bachelor of Science in Park Conservation Management
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Major: Parks and Conservation Management
Year: 2017
File Attachments: KIC Document 1.pdf
Authors: Christina Barton, Elayna Grove, Spencer Nolan, Katherine Nussbaumer

Event Planning and What It Takes

Wed, 04/30/2014 - 21:03
Abstract: The focus of this capstone was event planning. What goes into planning an event? A professional planner needs to think about the goals, the needs of the customer, type of event, food and beverage, facilities and risk. To plan and execute an event, one must determine the type. For example, is it a corporate meeting or fundraising function? A budget is needed for each event to understand what is affordable and what can be done. What type of risk is involved? A good planner needs to plan for the “what ifs” of an event. Technology has changed the event industry. There once was a time when guests of an event would be asked to turn off their cell phones. Now everyone uses their phones at events. People can Tweet live and use social media to increase the experience of events. Planners can use social media to boost their marketing as well. Once a planner has experience in the industry they can apply to become a Certified Meeting Planner or a Certified Special Events Professional. This certification shows that the planner is an expert in their field. This capstone was planning a business plan workshop at Paul Smith’s College. This event was designed to give students a chance to develop a business plan. Potential transfer students were invited to take part in the event. During the event the students had to create a new product to market along with current senior business students who acted as their mentors. Together, they came up with a business plan and had to give an elevator speech on the product to everyone. The winning team was chosen based on the marketing, taste and idea of the product. The event was considered a success by the visitors and the college.
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Major: Culinary Arts and Service Management, Hotel, Resort and Tourism Management
Year: 2014
Authors: Stephanie Dalaba

Presence and Abundance of Microplastics within Flowing Waters of Private, Wilderness, and Other Forest Preserve Lands of the Northern Adirondack Park

Mon, 04/28/2014 - 16:26
Abstract: Microplastic sampling was conducted at thirteen locations throughout the water bodies of the Northern Adirondack Region. Plastics were found at all thirteen sites, which were categorized by the impact level of human development. Any particle less than 5mm can be defined as a microplastic particle. Microscopic plastics can be found in a variety of chemical cleaners, clothing fabrics, and concrete solutions. Storm water drainage systems and wastewater treatment plants are confirmed sources of microplastic pollution, which carry pollutants into our rivers, lakes, and streams. Ingestion of microplastic particles can lead to many distinctive threats, including biological and physical abnormalities, while possibly leading to bioaccumulation and biomagnification throughout the food web. Future practices for management and prevention of microplastic pollutants in the Adirondacks is critical for environmental protection, while also portraying a worldly view of an overlooked human induced issue.
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Major: Environmental Sciences, Natural Resources Management and Policy
Year: 2014
Authors: Patrick Colern, Sinjin Larson

Driftwood Suites and Conference Services

Mon, 05/05/2014 - 19:00
Abstract: These are the reports of the original business plan for Driftwood Suites and four year analyses of the Hospitality Business Simulation Course. Driftwood Suites and Conference Services is located on the beautiful shores of Cape Cod, Massachusetts. This property is located 30 minutes away from the nearest airport. Driftwood Suites and Conference Services is the perfect location for business travelers and leisure travelers. Driftwood Suites currently has 125 air-conditioned rooms, all with private bathrooms and is well equipped to accommodate business travelers which is the main demographic of the property. Surrounding the property is an enclosed garden and a 200 car parking lot adjacent to the hotel. The products and services at Driftwood Suites that are offered are a new conference center, business services, and quick check in and check out. This property has a data point for email and internet access, level three complimentary items, and level four in room entertainment. In addition to the existing services such as 24 hour front desk servicers, lobby lounge, a full service restaurant called the Shipwreck Restaurant with a total of 100 seats, and a Pub style bar called the Pearl Pub with snack services and an additional bar called the Sea Glass Bar.
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Major: Hotel, Resort and Tourism Management
Year: 2014
Authors: Victoria Gonzalez

HOS 462 Hospitality Business Simulation Capstone

Mon, 05/05/2014 - 08:30
Abstract: This capstone was an simulation of the hotel business. The reports in this file are a business plan and analyses reports for the four years that we were asked to make operational decisions for. This class looks at everything involved with the operation of a hotel through the simulation of an fictional hotel that a group of students get to name and make all operating decisions for. Everything that has been learned through the time at Paul Smiths College is put to use when operating the hotel simulation.
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Major: Hotel, Resort and Tourism Management
Year: 2014
Authors: James Panza