After logging in with the login link in the top right, click here to upload your Capstone

Capstone Projects

Managing a Successful Bakery

Mon, 12/10/2018 - 16:15
Abstract: For this capstone we were given the responsibility of running the A.P. Smith's Bakery for eight weeks. These responsibilities included the management of student employees, and the creation of menus, production lists and ordering sheets.
Access: Yes
Literary Rights: Off
Major: Baking and Pastry Arts
Year: 2018
File Attachments: Final Capstone Paper.docx
Authors: Daniele Warner
Katelyn Aupperle

Lower St. Regis Lake Survey: A Comparative Study of Fish Population Structure and Function over Time

Thu, 12/13/2018 - 14:24
Abstract: Lake surveys are performed on bodies of water to provide a health analysis of fish populations over time. Lake surveys can be conducted in a variety of ways to attain specific data. Lower St. Regis Lake was surveyed to determine the fish community composition and to understand fish population traits. Using fyke nets placed at six predetermined locations for 24 hours, as well as fishing, we collected data for age, length (mm), weight (g), and parasites present. Data was analyzed in the lab using Excel to form graphs and tables to demonstrate our findings. Catch rates were lower compared to years before and comparing our data to New York State Department of Conservation data found that our length-at-age data was lower for the six-species sampled. Pumpkinseed and yellow perch were the only two species to have over twenty fish sampled. Decreased air temperatures brought in by a cold front during the week of our sampling may have been a reason for our lower number of fish caught. Mesh size is also a bias while using these nets as smaller fish can escape, and predatory fish can prey on smaller fish while in the net. Some species of fish such as black crappie may be more susceptible to capture due to its habit of associating with structure.
Access: Yes
Literary Rights: Off
Major: Biology, Environmental Sciences, Environmental Studies, Fisheries and Wildlife Science, Natural Resources Conservation and Management
Year: 2018
File Attachments: Capstone_Final.docx
Authors: Deacon Chapin, Jared Chlus, Louis Daversa, Jon Herrman, Robert Visicaro

A Comparison of Winter Wildlife Use of Minimally, Moderately and Highly Impacted Shorelines on Lower St. Regis Lake and Black Pond in the Adirondack Park, NY

Wed, 05/09/2018 - 10:51
Abstract: Continued development and human interference with freshwater shorelines creates a degraded environment and can negatively affect native wildlife along impacted areas. Throughout the Adirondack Park, shorelines have experienced substantial degradation with the development of lakeside summer homes. There tends to be a strong preference for the aesthetics that lakes offer, as well as the numerous recreational opportunities they provide. The increased human use of shorelines and the development of anthropogenic structures has directly resulted in the degradation of shorelines in the Adirondack Park. Likewise, the Paul Smith’s College shoreline along Lower St. Regis Lake has been subjected to degradation throughout the history of the campus. This highly impacted site was selected, alongside minimally and moderately impacted sites in the surrounding areas as representatives for different impact levels. Shoreline degradation includes a decline in the health and presence of natural vegetation, creating a decrease in available food source for native wildlife. The removal of natural vegetation creates a decline in shoreline stability with the removal of root systems, allowing for greater amounts of erosion to occur. Additionally, degradation decreases available canopy cover and increases exposure of wildlife to predation. The objective of this study was to determine the difference in wildlife activity and diversity between three levels of shoreline impacts: minimal, moderate, and high. It was expected that the minimally and moderately impacted shoreline sites would show a greater diversity and abundance of wildlife than highly impacted shorelines. Trail camera data was analyzed at three sites for each treatment on Paul Smith’s College property, along both the Lower St. Regis Lake and Black Pond. Although we detected no significant differences in either activity or diversity across the treatments, there was higher relative activity and diversity in moderately impacted shorelines than minimally or highly impacted. However, wildlife species that are more rare and/or area-sensitive, such as the fisher (Martes pennanti) and American marten (Martes americana), were only detected in the minimally impacted shorelines of Black Pond. A restoration of the highly impacted shoreline to reflect minimally and non-impacted shorelines of the surrounding region would allow for opportunities to improve habitat for native wildlife species.
Access: Yes
Literary Rights: Off
Major: Biology, Ecological Restoration, Environmental Sciences
Year: 2018
File Attachments: Shoreline Restoration
Authors: Tessa White, Caroline Matuck, Kasey Lane, Rosemary Bloodnick, Kyle Pasanen, Annalee Kraai

Effects of Silvicultural Treatments on Wildlife Communities at the Paul Smith's College Forest Research Demonstration Areas

Fri, 05/11/2018 - 16:15
Abstract: Logging has drastically altered North American forest ecosystems for centuries. While extensive studies have been done to determine the impacts of different silvicultural practices on plant communities, minimal research has evaluated the impacts on wildlife communities, particularly in the Adirondack Mountains. Silvicultural practices may significantly impact wildlife communities due to the disturbances it causes, as well as the way it alters the habitat. We monitored winter wildlife communities in the Forest Ecosystem Research Demonstration Area owned by Paul Smith’s College in the Northern Adirondack Park. By analyzing the data collected by trail cameras, tracks and measuring percent browse, we compared the abundance and diversity of wildlife in three silvicultural treatments (i.e., clearcut, group selection, control). We also collected data regarding the physical aspects of the silvicultural treatment plot (i.e. canopy cover and snow depth) to indicate the kind of available habitat. We found that despite there being the highest average relative activity in group selection, there is no significant relationship between average relative activity and harvest treatment type. Using the Shannon-Weiner Diversity Index, we found that the highest diversity was in control/reference. Due to our limited treatment sample size, we did not have conclusive findings in most areas of our study. However, the highest total tracks and relative activity were found in the clearcuts. We suggest that more research be done on this study in order to eventually make forest management plans that properly account for both plant and wildlife species.
Access: Yes
Literary Rights: On
Major: Biology, Environmental Sciences, Natural Resources Conservation and Management
Year: 2018
Authors: Jacob Adams, Caitlin De Bellis, Tyler Fisk, Hyla Howe, Mark McHugh, Daniel Sutch

Vista Wellness: An Educational Community Center for the Glenview Preserve

Fri, 12/14/2018 - 23:29
Abstract: The Glenview Preserve is home to a beautiful open vista of the High Peaks. This land was recently purchased by the Adirondack Land Trust and is looking for ways to sustainably manage the property by utilizing Paul Smith’s College capstone students for recommendations. One viable opportunity the ALT can incorporate, is the addition of a sustainable forum and conference center. With a community-oriented mind, Vista Wellness will provide a multitude of spaces for businesses and individuals to retreat while partaking in recreational activities. Vista Wellness is designed to be low impact with features such as a living roof and LEED certification. Using a promotional commercial and an intricate model, using state of the art construction supplies, we are able to convey the need for this addition to the Glenview property.
Access: Yes
Literary Rights: On
Major: Environmental Sciences, Sustainable Communities & Working Landscapes
Year: 2018
Authors: Kimberly Kehr
, Matthew Syke
, Thomas Szabo

ECTOMYCORRHIZA’S INFLUENCE ON SEEDLING GROWTH

Tue, 12/04/2018 - 14:16
Abstract: Mycorrhizae play an important role in forest ecosystems through their symbiotic relationship with trees and root systems. Of the mycorrhizae, ectomycorrhiza (EM), specifically targets softwood species and some hardwoods. In this experiment, the results of a powdered EM inoculum and red oak (Quercus rubra L.), pitch pine (Pinus rigida Mill.), and red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) were evaluated during one growing season. The study compared a control of no EM and treatment with EM in seed grown trees in containers. Difference between heights of the treatment and control were recorded to see if the inoculum impacted seedling growth of the host species. Throughout this capstone the hypothesis states: An ectomycorrhizae (EM) powdered inoculum would influence pitch pine, red spruce, and red oak seedlings height and biomass for the duration of one growing season (April-Late August). Red oak control exceeded treatment in biomass but not height, and pitch pine and red spruce treatment exceeded control in height and biomass.
Access: Yes
Literary Rights: Off
Major: Forestry
Year: 2018
File Attachments: finalreport_slinger.docx
Authors: Samantha L. Slingerland

Coarse Woody Debris Volume Following Conventional and Whole-Tree Harvesting

Tue, 12/04/2018 - 16:50
Abstract: Coarse woody debris (CWD) affects important ecological patterns and processes in the forest, including nutrient cycling, carbon stocks, wildlife habitat, regeneration dynamics, and hydrology. Timber harvesting practices have been shown to affect the abundance and distribution of CWD in forest stands. This study separates timber harvesting practices into two categories: conventional harvesting (CH), where only the main stem of trees and possibly some large branches are harvested, leaving branches, twigs, leaves, buds, and other plant parts to decompose on the forest floor, and whole-tree harvesting (WTH), which removes the entire aboveground portion of trees. I measured post-harvest CWD volume within recent patch clear cuts in Vermont, comparing results between CH and WTH. Conventional harvesting sites contained significantly more (p = 0.04) CWD volume (954ft^3/ac) than WTH sites (422 ft^3/ac). In other words, CH resulted in a post-harvest CWD volume 126% greater than the volume resulting from WTH. The most important difference was a wide discrepancy between treatments in decay class 2, which contained 66% of the total CWD volume. The increased reduction of CWD through WTH, especially when carried out over multiple rotations, may have negative effects on future site productivity, as well as richness and abundance of wildlife. The choice to employ CH or WTH may also affect the carbon balance, regeneration dynamics, and hydrology of forest stands.
Access: Yes
Literary Rights: Off
Major: Forestry
Year: 2018
Authors: William (Bill) Musson

Antifungal activity of propolis, neem oil, and cedarwood oil against the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor on American beech

Fri, 12/07/2018 - 16:27
Abstract: Fungi are often considered the most destructive organisms to attack wood that has gone through the milling process, so developing compounds to resist decay are extremely important. Copper chromated arsenic (CCA) was an industry standard until 2003 when its use was restricted due to environmental concerns. Thus, research into environmentally friendly compounds has become more common. This study investigated which compound, propolis extract, neem oil, or cedarwood oil, would best preserve beech wood exposed to Trametes versicolor. Extracts for each of the compounds were prepared using denatured ethanol, and infused into wood blocks using a vacuum pump. Blocks were made of American beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.) and were 10mm x 20mm x 5mm in size. The blocks were subjected to a common white-rot fungal strain, Trametes (= Coriolus) versicolor (L.) Lloyd (1920), for six weeks. Overall, propolis and cedarwood oil treated blocks lost significantly less mass than both neem and control blocks, suggesting they have potential for use as natural wood preservatives, and could be used as cobiocides.
Access: Yes
Literary Rights: Off
Major: Forestry
Year: 2018
File Attachments: Final Capstone Report.docx
Authors: Adam Milenkowic, Timothy Otis

The effects of different users on tree height measurements in two mixed hardwood stands in northern New York: A comparison of three measuring instruments.

Tue, 05/08/2018 - 20:23
Abstract: Height measurement in the forestry industry is one of the most important measurements that is needed for forest inventories but also one the most difficult to accurately obtain. There are many different types of tools that industry professionals use to measure tree heights. Those tools that are used vary greatly in price and quality which is considered by companies when deciding what tool to purchase. There has been little information on these different instruments and how accurate they are considering their price. This study looked at the Suunto Clinometer, Nikon Forestry Pro Rangefinder and the HagLof Vertex IV Hypsometer. These instruments were tested in different stand conditions that these tools would be used in. This study was done to help give more information to professionals about these measuring instruments and what instrument is better to use when considering their cost. The hypsometer was found to be the most accurate in both sites. The clinometer and range finder were found to be less accurate.
Access: Yes
Literary Rights: On
Major: Forestry
Year: 2018
Authors: Leland Helms, Scott Sidney, Kyle Tallman

Comparison of 5 Firewood Storage Structures for Most Efficient Drying of Acer rubrum in Northern NY

Thu, 05/10/2018 - 12:47
Abstract: Worldwide over 2 billion people use firewood to heat their homes. The cultural relevance of the act of stacking firewood means that there are many different recommended methods of stacking and storage. For this study we tested five structures for the drying of firewood, and measured change in moisture content over five weeks to determine which method was the most efficient. Red maple (Acer rubrum L.) and Black cherry (Prunus serotine L.) trees were felled in the Creighton Hill Tract and hauled 1.2 miles to the study site behind the Paul Smith’s College John Dillon Sawmill in Paul Smiths, New York. There they were split and stacked into the five different methods, which included a heap, uncovered stack, covered stack, shed, and stack wrapped in plastic. Moisture content readings were taken from nine red maple pieces within each stack three times a week for a total of five weeks. Uncovered firewood was most susceptible to changes in moisture content in response to precipitation. Covered stacks of wood had the greatest decrease in moisture content over the course of the study, and also proved to be less vulnerable to precipitation events. Firewood wrapped in plastic maintained significantly higher moisture content than the other methods consistently throughout the study.
Access: Yes
Literary Rights: Off
Major: Forestry
Year: 2018
Authors: Talia Stewart, Scott Seelbach