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Capstone Projects

Comparison of Fine and Coarse Organic Matter Among Levels of Shoreline Impact: Implications for Ecological Restoration

Mon, 05/01/2017 - 15:24
Abstract: Human lake shoreline development has been shown to have impacts on the dynamics of the lakeshore. Such dynamics include the riparian and littoral zones interactions; the complexity, abundance, and residence time of large woody debris; organic matter/detritus, and food webs for fish, birds, and macroinvertebrates. Understanding such dynamics, and the impacts of human development, are important when attempting to restore the shoreline through the process of ecological restoration. The objectives of the study were, (1) to compare the amount of organic matter (smaller than sticks, branches, logs, and trees) among three levels of impact (impacted, minimally impacted, and benchmark), (2) to compare the amounts of CPOM and FPOM among the three levels of impact. The field data was collected using a modified design of sediment corer. A total of 63 samples were taken and the results clearly showed that the reference (benchmark) site had a much higher accumulation of organic sediment along the shoreline. Also, the data analysis also showed that there was virtually no measurable FPOM among the impacted and minimally impacted sites, but among the references sites it was more abundant than CPOM, which was opposite from the impacted and minimally impacted sites.
Access: Yes
Literary Rights: On
Major: Environmental Sciences
Year: 2017
File Attachments: Final_Morrill.docx
Authors: John Morrill

A Comparison of Leaf Litter in the Aquatic, Terrestrial, and Transitional Zones among Impacted, Minimally Impacted, and Benchmark Conditions of the Shorelines of the Lower St. Regis Lake and Black Pond

Mon, 05/01/2017 - 17:55
Abstract: Human development of shorelines impacts structure and functionality of the shoreline’s ecosystems. Ecological restoration projects can be used to rectify this impact, but first data must be collected to determine the extent of impact human development has had on the shoreline. The objective of this study was to compare the biomass (wet and dry weights) of deciduous and coniferous leaf litter among impacted, minimally impacted, and benchmark shorelines and between terrestrial and aquatic zones. Data was collected among the three impact levels on the Paul Smith’s College property along the shores of Lower St. Regis Lake (impacted and minimally impacted) and Black Pond (benchmark). Deciduous and coniferous leaf litter was collected in the aquatic and terrestrial zones of the shoreline and among the three impact levels using 0.7 m2 terrestrial and 0.25 m2 aquatic quadrats, and then compared using nonparametric statistical tests to determine differences among impact levels and between zones. The results of this study revealed that the relationship between deciduous and coniferous leaf litter was more nuanced than expected. The study supported the current body of scientific knowledge in that shoreline development decreases the overall amount of leaf litter accumulated in the shoreline of lakes. However, should future studies on variation between deciduous and coniferous leaf litter be conducted, the criteria for impact levels should be expanded to ensure the sites used are more comparable in forest type.
Access: Yes
Literary Rights: On
Major: Environmental Sciences
Year: 2017
Authors: Hannah Ashdown

Does the presence of Malus spp. increase the fertility of the soil surface in pastures?

Mon, 05/01/2017 - 18:24
Abstract: Techniques to increase soil fertility in a pasture can benefit the system by combating soil degradation and increasing the health of vegetation. The use of apple trees (Malus spp.) may be particularly beneficial in achieving this due to reliable fruit yields, ease of management, and variety of suitable habitat. We hypothesized that soil directly under the canopy of apple trees would be higher in nutrients (C, Ca, K, Mg, N, & P) than soil in areas with no tree cover. Soil samples were taken from the top 15 cm of the soil surface under apple trees and in areas without trees at 14 sites in Massachusetts and New York. Samples were analyzed using spectrometry and color imagery to determine nutrient content. Potassium and magnesium concentrations were found to be significantly higher in under-canopy samples. Further research may expand these results and determine if the application of apple trees can be used to increase the health of pasture systems.
Access: Yes
Literary Rights: Off
Major: Environmental Sciences, Forestry
Year: 2017
File Attachments: capstone_gumbartpayson.pdf
Authors: Julia Payson, Ryan Gumbart

The Age and Origin of Lake Ejagham, Cameroon: 9,000-Year-Old Sediment Evidence Suggests Possible Bolide Impactor

Tue, 05/02/2017 - 15:18
Abstract: Lake Ejagham is a relatively small lake (54 hectares) located in the south-western region of Cameroon, Africa. Two sediment cores, EJ1 and EJ2, were extruded in 1987 by Dr. Dan Livingstone, preserved, and analyzed in 2016. Sediment and diatom analyses were performed in conjunction with radiocarbon dating, which suggests the maximum age of the lake itself is about 9,000 years old. The age of the lake was confirmed by both the radiocarbon dating of the sediment as well as the dating of wood fragments found at the base of the EJ2 core. The diatom analyses indicate that in recent times high percentages of planktonic diatoms were present, which suggests a relatively wetter hydroclimate than in the past. In the mid-section of EJ1 those planktonic diatom percentages were lower, which indicates drier climates or changes to the lacustrine environment. The consistency in the sediment and climate record suggest that Lake Ejagham has been uninterrupted by environmental catastrophes, which provided suitable conditions for endemic cichlids to evolve via sympatry, particularly Coptodon ejagham. Lake Ejagham has been thought to have formed as a solution basin, when water dissolves and carries away underground minerals forming a depression. Instead, the bedrock beneath the lake contains both soluble and insoluble layers, which prevent this from happening. Here we assert that the EJ1 and EJ2 cores support an alternative origin, possibly from a bolide impactor, however this is not conclusive.
Access: Yes
Literary Rights: Off
Major: Environmental Sciences
Year: 2017
Authors: Kenneth B. Alton

Affordable Sustainable Housing in the Urban Environment

Sat, 05/06/2017 - 21:26
Abstract: This paper addresses the lack of sustainable affordable housing in the urban environment. The focus of this study is the urban environment due to an increased rate of migration from rural areas to urban areas. This increase has led to a growing need for cities to become more sustainable in order to support the increasing population density. Focusing on the residential sector, cities have made great strides towards providing green-supportive and sustainable housing for their residents. However, the accessibility to sustainable housing in the urban environment for low-income residents is limited. The primary research questions this study addresses are what are the barriers to sustainable affordable housing in the urban environment, and how can we overcome these barriers? Through using secondary sources, the findings for this study were that the greatest barriers to developing sustainable low-income housing is the need for costly retrofits, and a lack of government subsidies. Addressing the second research question, the solutions to overcoming these barriers include: technological innovation, public-private partnerships, encouraging grass-roots groups, mixed-use development, and micro-apartments.
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Literary Rights: Off
Major: Natural Resources Conservation and Management
Year: 2017
Authors: Erinn Pollock

Site Management Plan for the VIC-Quarry Wall

Fri, 05/05/2017 - 13:38
Abstract: Over time, the Paul Smith's College VIC (VIC) has evolved into a more accessible and enjoyable nature center for the community and the Paul Smith's College students. The VIC offers free and fee based activities such as arts, sports, and educational programs throughout the year, including bird and nature walks, children's educational programs, art exhibits, concerts, lectures, workshops, and naturalist-led paddles (Discover the Adirondack Mountains at the VIC, 2017). Starting a management plan for an outdoor rock climbing wall, located on the VIC property, involves many aspects and considerations. These specifications must then be effectively evaluated to start a functioning program.
Access: Yes
Literary Rights: On
Major: Recreation, Adventure Education and Leisure Management
Year: 2017
File Attachments: Management Plan
Authors: Bayle Reichert, Brian Lane

Master Interpretive Plan for the Paul Smith's College VIC

Fri, 05/05/2017 - 23:49
Abstract: The Master Interpretive Plan is an elaborate document used to plan programs that utilize all aspects of the VIC to ensure the programs achieve the goals and mission. This particular document is a framework that is intended to be used by the VIC staff to develop a more in-depth working document.
Access: Yes
Literary Rights: Off
Major: Recreation, Adventure Education and Leisure Management
Year: 2017
File Attachments: final4-19 (1).docx
Authors: Alicia M. Feraldi, Christopher M. Harloff

Feasibility Study of Running a Summer Day Camp at the VIC

Mon, 05/08/2017 - 19:28
Abstract: Since the late nineteenth century, summer camp has been a part of the lives of American children; over the years it has transformed from a place for young boys to learn “manly things” to a place where parents can send their children for a summer of experience, education, and memories (Van Slyck, 2006). According to the American Camp Association, there are over 14,000 day and overnight camps in the US with approximately 14 million children and adults in the US attending camps annually. Recent research has shown the many benefits of sending children to summer camp, which includes physical, educational, and social benefits. The Paul Smith’s College VIC consists of 3,000 acres including 25 miles of trails for recreational use by the public and an interpretive center used for art shows and environmental education. Their mission is “to connect outdoor recreation, experiential education, and the arts, naturally.” Through the vast amount of land and use of the interpretive building, the VIC could potentially be the ideal location for a summer day camp. There are several other factors to consider in whether or not the VIC is a feasible location to run a day camp; these include products and services offered, the target market, marketing strategies, organization and staffing, annual scheduling,technological analysis, financial projections, and recommendations. The mission of this potential day camp is to connect children with nature, the environment and each other, fostering learning, environmental stewardship, and friendship. Through this study, it has been determined that a day camp is feasible - it would take some time however, to get funding, licensing, insurance, staff, etc. into place before the program could be implemented.
Access: Yes
Literary Rights: On
Major: Recreation, Adventure Education and Leisure Management
Year: 2017
Authors: Lenore Elizabeth Marcuson, Lauren Elsa Brieant

My Awesome Capstone

Mon, 04/11/2016 - 15:19
Abstract: THIS IS MY CAPSTONE! PLEASE PRESERVE IT FOR POSTERITY.
Access: Yes
Literary Rights: Off
Major: Communication
Year: 2016
File Attachments: Press Capstone 2016.docx
Authors: Meggan Press

Forest Structure and Composition in the Smitty Creek Watershed

Wed, 12/14/2016 - 09:56
Abstract: The 2016 Smitty Creek CFI (Continuous Forest Inventory) study addressed the issue of creating a reliable and repeatable inventory design to examine general forestry trends and their relationships with the watershed itself. Identifying these trends and their consequences is important when considering factors linked to climate change, such as carbon storage and allocation. The objective of this project were as follows: establish 10 new CFI plots, monitor and record for signs of disease and insects, tree mortality, and overstory wildlife habitat, accurately estimate forest carbon sequestration, record understory composition in a 1/50th acre area around each plot center, and suggest methods and reasons for application in Paul Smith’s College CFI capstone projects. The study was conducted within the Smitty Creek watershed in Paul Smiths, NY with the plots falling on a transect that runs north and south. At each plot, trees within the radius were assigned numbered aluminum tags, trees were measured at diameter at breast height, and other features, such as snags, were recorded. Upon completing the project, 10 CFI plots had been created and their locations were recorded, several diseases and forest health concerns were identified, as well as, tree mortality and wildlife habitat considerations, carbon sequestration for the watershed was modeled over the next century, and a CFI project was designed for the Paul Smith’s College land compartments. The Smitty Creek watershed CFI project is repeatable and has an accurate baseline of information for future studies, and the Paul Smith’s College land compartments CFI plot design is ready for implementation.
Access: Yes
Literary Rights: On
Major: Environmental Sciences, Fisheries and Wildlife Science, Forestry
Year: 2016
Authors: Gregg Slezak, Leonard Johnson, William O'Reilly, Jake Weber, Charlie Ulrich, Collin Perkins McCraw, Jake Harm, Nick Georgelas