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Capstone Projects

A Comparison of Macro-Invertebrate Communities in Different Substrates among Impacted and Minimally-Impacted Sites on Lower St. Regis Lake and Benchmark Sites on Black Pond

Wed, 05/03/2017 - 21:34
Abstract: Many shorelines today have been impacted by human activities which has resulted in changes in macro-aquatic invertebrate communities. Ecological restoration can be used in efforts to bring macro-aquatic invertebrates back into shorelines. However, data is needed to better understand how macro-aquatic invertebrates can be used in these efforts as indicator species to determine community structure health and function. This project compared the macro-aquatic invertebrate communities in impacted and minimally impacted sites located on Lower St. Regis Lake and benchmark sites located on Black Pond. The two objectives to this project were to 1) compare the species richness among impact levels and 2) compare the density among impact levels. Each impacted level has three sites and at each site ten samples were taken in a systematic way which resulted in 90 total samples. Samples were taken to the lab to be sorted and for macro-aquatic invertebrates could be identified to the family level. The macro-aquatic invertebrate community was different among each impact level. The overall family diversity was greater at the benchmark sites than the minimally impacted and impacted sites. Dominate substrate type that had a greater presence of different families were sites that had organic matter. The findings of this study create a more knowledge base which can be useful for future ecological restoration efforts on the impacted and minimally impacted areas located on Lower St. Regis Lake and to educate the public on the impacts on macro-aquatic invertebrates and their communities.
Access: Yes
Literary Rights: On
Major: Biology
Year: 2017
Authors: Amber St. Andrew

Assessment of Tree Planting Riparian Management along the Ausable and Boquet Rivers in New York State

Tue, 12/05/2017 - 14:28
Abstract: Ecological restoration is, in part, restoring degraded ecosystems. By adding riparian vegetation along degraded reaches of rivers and streams, ecologists can begin to restore the natural habitat and processes associated with that river or stream. Trees, shrubs and grasses can be very important in retaining stream bank soils, providing shade in the river and habitat for terrestrial species. Two programs called Trees for Tribs and Ausable River Association (AsRA), restore degraded riparian areas in the state of New York, including the Ausable and Bouquet Rivers in the Adirondack State Park. This study compared survival rates of the plantings in nine different locations along the Ausable River and one location along the Boquet River. The tree species, living status (survivorship), and stem density of the understory was recorded. The four AsRA planting sites and one U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service site planted saplings ranging from 6-8 feet in height, and the Trees for Tribs planted seedlings at the other five sites. It was found that there was no significant difference between the survival rates of the saplings in comparison to the survival rates of the seedlings (p-value = 0.37). In addition, there was no significant difference (p-value = 0.05) in the stem density measurements between sapling and seedling plots. It was also observed that records of tree plantings were either missing, incomplete or inaccurate from both Ausable River Association and Trees for Tribs.
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Major: Environmental Sciences
Year: 2017
Authors: Austin Tremblay

Living Machine ® Wastewater Treatment in Sólheimar

Tue, 12/05/2017 - 15:02
Abstract: As of 2014, Sólheimar Ecovillage in South Iceland began to experience inadequate sewage treatment. After a large earthquake, the community’s constructed wetland became damaged, freely expelling untreated wastewater into the surrounding watershed. After research, the Living Machine® system became the evident solution to help mitigate this issue. By using a case study of a Living Machine® system in South Burlington, Vermont, I was able to determine output estimates of individuals by gallons per day (GPD) and approximate a price for a Living Machine® with a greenhouse at $1,019, 694 USD. Different approaches Sólheimar could take to help make this project successful would be installing a flowmeter, applying for different grants, charging tourists to use the restrooms, and contacting the engineering company to discuss the current and future piping system in the village.
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Literary Rights: Off
Major: Environmental Sciences
Year: 2017
File Attachments: jsetter_final.pdf
Authors: Jessica Setter

A Comparison of Fall and Spring Minnow (Cyprinidae) Surveys to Assess Overwinter Changes in Community Composition in a Marshland of the Northern Adirondacks, NY

Wed, 12/06/2017 - 03:51
Abstract: Minnows are an integral component of a healthy aquatic ecosystem. However, minnows are very sensitive to habitat destruction and loss, changes in water quality, and over predation. As a result of its integral role, an unhealthy, or absent minnow population can wreak havoc on an ecosystem. The objectives are to compare minnow species richness and composition between spring and fall surveys for different regions in the marsh, compare minnow trap catch rates between fall and spring for each minnow species for different regions of the marsh, compare mean length of minnow species between fall and spring, and compare water temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and conductivity in the fall with that of late winter and post ice-out. The study location was Heron Marsh of New York’s Adirondack Park, which supports of variety of fish in the cyprinidae family. Water quality was collected using a YSI meter in all 4 seasons of the year, and minnows were sampled using galvanized steel minnow traps during the fall and spring. Nearly all sites saw an increase in cyprinid biodiversity and abundance. Long term monitoring should be established for more robust data that can in turn justify more solid conclusions.
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Major: Environmental Sciences
Year: 2017
File Attachments: Capstone Report
Authors: Brenden Blair

Developing A Wildlife Teaching Collection

Wed, 12/06/2017 - 13:14
Abstract: Wildlife specimens hold significant scientific and educational value at Paul Smith’s College through the preservation of essential biological information. Specimens allow for the better understanding of the past and present conditions of a species, and are a valuable teaching tool for all-inclusive wildlife education. However important, it is apparent that the accumulation of wildlife specimens is insufficient due to a lack of education surrounding the preservation of specimens and methods pertaining to the development of a specimen collection. In response, the procedural framework surrounding standard specimen preparation practices was analyzed and adjusted in order meet the specific needs of the institution. A comprehensive procedural manual was created with the intention of making specimen preparation a more approachable task for interested students, as well as to ensure continual growth of the wildlife teaching collection at Paul Smith’s College.
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Literary Rights: On
Major: Environmental Sciences
Year: 2017
Authors: Jacob McCourt, Benjamin Wrazen

The Effects of pH on the Distribution of the Mink Frog (Lithobates septentrionalis)

Fri, 12/08/2017 - 14:41
Abstract: Amphibian decline is occurring at an alarming rate. The acidification of aquatic systems is contributing to the decline, affecting habitat viability which affects dispersal, breeding success and the mortality of young. Tolerances to the acidic conditions vary amongst species, but are not known for all amphibians. The mink frog (Lithobates septentrionalis) has scattered dispersals throughout the regions in which they are found. The goal of this study was to observe possible effects of pH on the distribution of the mink frog, which is native to the Adirondack Park. A call survey was completed in 40 Adirondack water systems to determine dispersal. The pH of the lakes in which the call survey was conducted were also recorded. This study documents the relationship between pH and distribution of the mink frog along with the variations between the lacustrine and deep water pH values for each water system. The mink frog was not found in lakes with pH <6.5. Evidence also showed that the pH between deep water and lacustrine regions had varying differences that may prove to be significant in regards to studying some species. It is recommended that lacustrine data be examined along with limnologic deep water data when studying lacustrine dwelling species.
Access: Yes
Literary Rights: Off
Major: Environmental Sciences
Year: 2017
File Attachments: final capstone.docx
Authors: Cheylynne Tyrrell

Comparison of Fine and Coarse Organic Matter Among Levels of Shoreline Impact: Implications for Ecological Restoration

Mon, 05/01/2017 - 15:24
Abstract: Human lake shoreline development has been shown to have impacts on the dynamics of the lakeshore. Such dynamics include the riparian and littoral zones interactions; the complexity, abundance, and residence time of large woody debris; organic matter/detritus, and food webs for fish, birds, and macroinvertebrates. Understanding such dynamics, and the impacts of human development, are important when attempting to restore the shoreline through the process of ecological restoration. The objectives of the study were, (1) to compare the amount of organic matter (smaller than sticks, branches, logs, and trees) among three levels of impact (impacted, minimally impacted, and benchmark), (2) to compare the amounts of CPOM and FPOM among the three levels of impact. The field data was collected using a modified design of sediment corer. A total of 63 samples were taken and the results clearly showed that the reference (benchmark) site had a much higher accumulation of organic sediment along the shoreline. Also, the data analysis also showed that there was virtually no measurable FPOM among the impacted and minimally impacted sites, but among the references sites it was more abundant than CPOM, which was opposite from the impacted and minimally impacted sites.
Access: Yes
Literary Rights: On
Major: Environmental Sciences
Year: 2017
File Attachments: Final_Morrill.docx
Authors: John Morrill

A Comparison of Leaf Litter in the Aquatic, Terrestrial, and Transitional Zones among Impacted, Minimally Impacted, and Benchmark Conditions of the Shorelines of the Lower St. Regis Lake and Black Pond

Mon, 05/01/2017 - 17:55
Abstract: Human development of shorelines impacts structure and functionality of the shoreline’s ecosystems. Ecological restoration projects can be used to rectify this impact, but first data must be collected to determine the extent of impact human development has had on the shoreline. The objective of this study was to compare the biomass (wet and dry weights) of deciduous and coniferous leaf litter among impacted, minimally impacted, and benchmark shorelines and between terrestrial and aquatic zones. Data was collected among the three impact levels on the Paul Smith’s College property along the shores of Lower St. Regis Lake (impacted and minimally impacted) and Black Pond (benchmark). Deciduous and coniferous leaf litter was collected in the aquatic and terrestrial zones of the shoreline and among the three impact levels using 0.7 m2 terrestrial and 0.25 m2 aquatic quadrats, and then compared using nonparametric statistical tests to determine differences among impact levels and between zones. The results of this study revealed that the relationship between deciduous and coniferous leaf litter was more nuanced than expected. The study supported the current body of scientific knowledge in that shoreline development decreases the overall amount of leaf litter accumulated in the shoreline of lakes. However, should future studies on variation between deciduous and coniferous leaf litter be conducted, the criteria for impact levels should be expanded to ensure the sites used are more comparable in forest type.
Access: Yes
Literary Rights: On
Major: Environmental Sciences
Year: 2017
Authors: Hannah Ashdown

Does the presence of Malus spp. increase the fertility of the soil surface in pastures?

Mon, 05/01/2017 - 18:24
Abstract: Techniques to increase soil fertility in a pasture can benefit the system by combating soil degradation and increasing the health of vegetation. The use of apple trees (Malus spp.) may be particularly beneficial in achieving this due to reliable fruit yields, ease of management, and variety of suitable habitat. We hypothesized that soil directly under the canopy of apple trees would be higher in nutrients (C, Ca, K, Mg, N, & P) than soil in areas with no tree cover. Soil samples were taken from the top 15 cm of the soil surface under apple trees and in areas without trees at 14 sites in Massachusetts and New York. Samples were analyzed using spectrometry and color imagery to determine nutrient content. Potassium and magnesium concentrations were found to be significantly higher in under-canopy samples. Further research may expand these results and determine if the application of apple trees can be used to increase the health of pasture systems.
Access: Yes
Literary Rights: Off
Major: Environmental Sciences, Forestry
Year: 2017
File Attachments: capstone_gumbartpayson.pdf
Authors: Julia Payson, Ryan Gumbart

The Age and Origin of Lake Ejagham, Cameroon: 9,000-Year-Old Sediment Evidence Suggests Possible Bolide Impactor

Tue, 05/02/2017 - 15:18
Abstract: Lake Ejagham is a relatively small lake (54 hectares) located in the south-western region of Cameroon, Africa. Two sediment cores, EJ1 and EJ2, were extruded in 1987 by Dr. Dan Livingstone, preserved, and analyzed in 2016. Sediment and diatom analyses were performed in conjunction with radiocarbon dating, which suggests the maximum age of the lake itself is about 9,000 years old. The age of the lake was confirmed by both the radiocarbon dating of the sediment as well as the dating of wood fragments found at the base of the EJ2 core. The diatom analyses indicate that in recent times high percentages of planktonic diatoms were present, which suggests a relatively wetter hydroclimate than in the past. In the mid-section of EJ1 those planktonic diatom percentages were lower, which indicates drier climates or changes to the lacustrine environment. The consistency in the sediment and climate record suggest that Lake Ejagham has been uninterrupted by environmental catastrophes, which provided suitable conditions for endemic cichlids to evolve via sympatry, particularly Coptodon ejagham. Lake Ejagham has been thought to have formed as a solution basin, when water dissolves and carries away underground minerals forming a depression. Instead, the bedrock beneath the lake contains both soluble and insoluble layers, which prevent this from happening. Here we assert that the EJ1 and EJ2 cores support an alternative origin, possibly from a bolide impactor, however this is not conclusive.
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Literary Rights: Off
Major: Environmental Sciences
Year: 2017
Authors: Kenneth B. Alton