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Capstone Projects

The role of terrestrial leaf litter inputs on drift of aquatic invertebrate shredders

Mon, 12/02/2013 - 13:34
Abstract: This study examined the effect of food availability on active drift entry of aquatic invertebrates by comparing drift density at low and high levels of terrestrial leaf litter input in Alder Brook. An emphasis was placed on the proportion of shredders collected during each sampling, who rely most on coarse particulate organic matter as a food source. In order to quantify food available in the stream channel, leaf packs were collected along three transects and weighed to determine dry biomass per stream area. Invertebrate drift samples were collected at high (leaf abscission) and low levels (late summer) of food abundance using three surber nets spaced evenly across the stream channel. Samples were taken at 3-hr intervals over a 24-hr sampling period. Out of eight sampling periods, drift density at low litter input was found to be greatest just after sunset and through the evening hours. Drift densities were significantly higher during 2 sampling periods and numerically higher for an additional 4 sampling periods. Shredders did not comprise the greatest proportion of the drift at low litter input, only accounting for 0.4% of total drifting invertebrates. The proportion of shredders increased to 36.2% at high litter input.
Access: Yes
Literary Rights: On
Major: Natural Resources Management and Policy
Year: 2013
File Attachments: Final_Manuscript_Simek.docx
Authors: Zachary Simek

A COPAR Report of Ethnographic Inquiry Addressing Issues of Water Availability and Hygiene Mathare Valley, Nairobi, Kenya

Wed, 04/24/2013 - 21:30
Abstract: I conducted a cyclical ethnographic inquiry in the Mathare Valley informal settlement of Nairobi, Kenya, during the months of May and June 2012. My question was: How do Mathare residents interact with and access water and what are the technological and environmental restrictions limiting or preventing adequate water supply? The goal of this study was to create environmental and social change by improving access to water for consumption and bathing. As both a researcher and technical advisor, I adopted and used Community Oriented Participatory Action Research (COPAR). This research approach required my immersion into the Kenyan culture where I lived, ate and slept in the informal settlement of Mathare Valley, interviewing a total of 49 families on communal issues of water and hygiene. While in Mathare, I recorded quantitative and qualitative data comparing wet and dry seasons; distance to water sources; amount of water used; cost of water; and prevalence of disease (represented by potability) as well as issues regarding the Nairobi City Council, communal water availability, and hygienic conditions. A potential solution to water conservation and hygiene was construction of a bucket shower (several liter metal bucket with handle and valve to control water flow) to conserve bathing water reducing overall consumption. Through analysis of seven major, quantitatively and qualitatively determined themes, this paper presents anecdotal evidence in the context of empirical data through temporal revelation of thematic constraints. I found that during the dry season: family members in Mathare travel significantly farther to gather water, spending more money while consuming less water presenting complex issues among livelihoods within an informal settlement environment.
Access: Yes
Literary Rights: Off
Major: Natural Resources Management and Policy
Year: 2013
File Attachments: Anderson_Ian_Capstone.docx
Authors: Ian Anderson

Remote Sensing for Forest Change Detection in Afghanistan

Fri, 04/26/2013 - 08:41
Abstract: Abstract: Afghanistan’s forests are one of the country’s most important natural resources. Afghanistan has faced conflicts that have plagued the country for more than 25 years and resulted in rapid deforestation and environmental despoliation. Forested lands need to be preserved in order for Afghanistan to revamp social and economic livelihoods and control the environmental degradation. This study will analyze Landsat satellite imagery using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and ERDAS DeltaCue change detection software to assess forest deviations in Afghanistan between 1998 and 2010. Areas in Nangarhar Province identified significant change in vegetation cover in terms of both deforestation and reforestation. Deforestation occurred more frequently around the city edges of Jalalabad, whereas reforestation occurred farther from settlements. The Tasseled Cap process produced a final output change detection layer which represented the combined detection of all significant change between the three images. Determining where deforestation is occurring through Remote Sensing is a critical first step towards rehabilitating Afghanistan’s forest productivity.
Access: Yes
Literary Rights: On
Major: Natural Resources Management and Policy
Year: 2013
Authors: David Lattuca

A Meta-Analysis of the Impacts of Professional Bass Fishing Tournaments

Mon, 04/29/2013 - 19:28
Abstract: Professional black bass (Micropterous spp.) fishing tournaments have significant economic benefits associated with them; however concerns about various negative ecological effects are being raised. Fish mortality has the potential to be critically high following release of the fish, whether it be from stress, hooking injuries, heat exposure, disease, or a lack of sufficient oxygen. Mortality can occur prior to release, or it can occur several days to even weeks after release. The vast majority of organized tournaments release all of the fish in one specific location once the weigh-in process has been completed. The lack of dispersal among bass once they are released back into the water is another key issue. Utilizing 17 different studies on mortality and 8 studies on dispersal, this meta-analysis study looks at how tournaments can affect the bass population in lakes and rivers across the country. It also examines the variables that affect mortality and dispersal such as season, water temperature, location, and species of bass. The potential ways for the survival rate to be improved is also discussed. The results of the meta-analysis showed that water temperature had a significant impact on mortality, as did the time of year the tournaments were held. Mortality was highest from a period of 1-10 days following the tournaments, but was still occurring up to one month after. Dispersal was highest for Largemouth Bass, and for Spring-held tournaments. The study concludes that there are several ways to potentially lower the tournament associated mortality rate for black bass.
Access: No
Literary Rights: Off
Major: Natural Resources Management and Policy
Year: 2013
File Attachments: The Author has selected not to publish this complete work.
Authors: Brett Leidner

Where in the Unite States Can Dual-Flush Toilets Flush Out Savings?

Mon, 12/02/2013 - 13:06
Abstract: Potable water is becoming increasingly scarce in water poor regions of the United States. Reducing the volume of potable water consumed residentially and commercially is vital to ensure a stable water dependent future. Converting a traditional single-flush toilet into a dual-flush toilet is arguably the most effective means for reducing wastewater production in both residential and commercial settings. The objective of this study was to determine where within the United States dual-flush retrofits are cost effective. A cost-benefit analysis illustrating the price of the dual-flush retrofits & the monetary value of the water conserved post installation will be created using Paul Smith’s College campus of northern New York State as a testing site. The study will utilize a total of 145 toilets for both commercial and residential settings. Costs of the installation and purchasing of the product will be used to determine pay-back period and thus, the economic benefit of installing dual-flush toilets. Secondary data from previously completed dual-flush studies determined where within the 50 states dual-flush retrofits are cost effective. The resulting data illustrated relatively long payback periods for the greater United States with the most dramatic differences being seen in Hawaii and the least in Nebraska.
Access: Yes
Literary Rights: On
Major: Natural Resources Sustainability
Year: 2013
File Attachments: FinalC.docx
Authors: Andrew Noviasky

A MULTI-SCALE EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTS OF FOREST HARVESTING FOR WOODY BIOFUELS ON MAMMALIAN COMMUNITIES IN A NORTHERN HARDWOOD FOREST

Fri, 02/01/2013 - 16:19
Abstract: Forest harvesting and subsequent effects on forest structure have been shown to influence mammalian community assemblages and the abundance of individual species, however less attention has been paid to the implications of how harvested timber is used. This is particularly relevant in the Northern Forest, where a considerable portion of the forest harvesting is used to produce biofuels. Biofuels harvesting typically involves the process of whole-tree chipping which may lead to a dramatic reduction in the amount of woody material in the form of slash and coarse woody debris (CWD) left in harvested stands. The goal of our study was to assess the effects of biofuels harvesting on forest structure and subsequent effects on mammalian community structure and abundance. To address this goal, we focused on a ~35 Ha area of partially-harvested northern hardwood forest in the northern Adirondacks, New York. To sample mammals we used a combination of Sherman traps and track plates established at two scales across stands within this area. Our results showed that the response of small mammals to changes in forest structure is both species and scale specific. At the individual trap scale, CWD, slash, and understory cover were important drivers of the occurrence of individual species of small mammals. At the larger “grid” scale, small mammal relative abundance was driven by canopy cover and the density of woody stems. Our results indicate that the current harvesting practices used for biofuel production in the Adirondacks are unlikely to result in declines in abundance of common small mammal species. However, the retention of some slash post-harvest may be beneficial to some species, thus foresters may want to include slash retention when developing silvicultural prescriptions.
Access: Yes
Literary Rights: Off
Major: Environmental Sciences, Fisheries and Wildlife Science, Natural Resources Management and Policy
Year: 2012
Authors: Cody Laxton, Alisha Benack, Danielle Ball, Scott Collins, Sam Forlenza, Richard Franke, Stephanie Korzec, Alec Judge, Connor Langevin, Jonathan Vimislik, Elena Zito

Sharing the John Dillon Park Experience with More Visitors: A marketing and management strategy, to increase visitor usage concentrating on organizations for people with disabilities and Veterans

Mon, 04/16/2012 - 17:54
Abstract: International Paper John Dillon Park (JDP) is a fully accessible campground managed by Paul Smith's College (PSC). Fully accessible means it was designed so anyone, regardless of the presence of a disability, can utilize the facility. The campground has not been near full capacity since it was opened in 2006. PSC wishes to increase those visitor numbers concentrating on Veterans and organizations for people with disabilities. A survey was conducted of the current park visitors to obtain information needed to help define the desired demographic and other information needed for the marketing strategy of JDP. These visitor responses showed that PSC needs to concentrate its marketing efforts into better contact with its current users to stimulate return users, make a few changes to the facilities themselves, and advertise within magazines, Veteran organizations, organizations for people with disabilities and Fort Drum. Also, the responses informed PSC that it needs to provide for the recollection phase of the recreational experience by selling JDP souvenirs. With an increase in the visitor usage of JDP, more people will be able to appreciate the serenity of nature and the camping experience JDP offers to all people.
Access: Yes
Literary Rights: Off
Major: Forestry, Natural Resources Management and Policy
Year: 2012
File Attachments: Jeffrey T. Bellaire.pdf
Authors: Jeffrey T. Bellaire

An Analysis of Possible Forest Type Shifts due to Asian Longhorned Beetle Invasion in the Northern Hardwood Forest of Hebron, NY

Mon, 04/16/2012 - 18:10
Abstract: The Asian Longhorned beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis) is an invasive alien insect that poses a severe threat to forests of the northeastern United States. If this insect is allowed to run rampant through our forests there will be huge economic and ecological implications. This study hopes to provide a better understanding of these potential implications and provide potential policies for managing and controlling this insect that has potentially devastating effects on the hardwood forests of the northeast. The study on hand will explore the effects on current forest types in Hebron, NY and what future regeneration may look like in the aftermath of an ALB infestation. ALB has the potential to completely change not only the landscape but also alter current markets based around the northern hardwood stand type. This study was designed to attempt to grasp the magnitude and effects of an infestation by ALB. Current policies were reviewed to attempt to create a possible set of management strategies that could be used to minimize the effects of the ALB. Possible forest type shifts were predicted for the area based upon species range and soil types present in the study area. It is important to understand not only what ALB is capable of but also what can be expected to happen if or when it does move through the area.
Access: Yes
Literary Rights: Off
Major: Forestry, Natural Resources Management and Policy
Year: 2012
File Attachments: Complete Project.docx
Authors: Leonard Jenkins, Robert Bell, Schuyler VanAuken

The Distribution of Northern Harriers (Circus cyaneus) in Northern New York State in Relation to the Availability of Habitat Types

Mon, 04/16/2012 - 18:55
Abstract: Northern Harriers (Circus cyaneus), a bird of prey species, are widely distributed throughout the United States generally at low densities. Harriers are found in New York State, although they are less common than in the Midwest. As the harrier is a species of concern in some regions, it is important to understand how land cover types can affect the distribution of Northern Harriers over time, within a given area. Specifically, this study investigated whether the distributions of Northern Harriers are dependent upon habitat type, and if the frequency of habitat types significantly affects the abundance of Northern Harriers. The area selected for this study includes the majority of New York State to the North and East of Watertown. This region was selected because data indicates that harrier populations have declined from 1980 to 2005. In addition, this region encompasses mountainous areas as well as lower, relatively flatter land outside of the Adirondacks which represents most of New York State. Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems were utilized to determine land cover types for the region. These land cover types were then combined with New York State Department of Environmental Conservation’s Breeding Bird Atlas survey blocks. Dominant cover types for each survey block were determined, and the region as a whole was compared to survey blocks within which harriers were present. This process was completed for the years 1984 and 2005, two years in which the Breeding Bird Atlas data were collected for New York State. By using Remote Sensing and GIS, a clearer understanding of the relationship between cover type frequency and harrier presence was possible. Results indicate that Northern Harriers are significantly selecting habitat from land cover types in a proportion different to that which is available. Land cover in this region has shifted throughout the time covered in this study. In addition, a trend of open habitat being chosen over closed canopy habitat is evident. Understanding harrier selection of land cover types can greatly affect management strategies, practices and funding, as the specie is listed as threatened in New York State. The results of this study support much of the available scientific literature on harriers, which state that harriers require a combination of open canopy habitats, including early successional habitat with low vegetative cover.
Access: Yes
Literary Rights: Off
Major: Forestry, Natural Resources Management and Policy
Year: 2012
Authors: Kelly Hoffman

A Cost-Benefit Analysis of Allowing All-Terrain Vehicles on Vermont State Land

Sat, 12/01/2012 - 12:35
Abstract: Our capstone project is a cost-benefit analysis of allowing ATVs (All-Terrain Vehicles) on Vermont State land. This issue is controversial among Vermont outdoor enthusiasts. We wanted to know if the allowance of ATVs on Vermont state land is economically feasible. This study explored the current economic impacts and damages of ATV-related activities in Vermont, willingness to pay to use state land, and the possible economic benefits of allowing ATVs on state land compared to the trail construction and maintenance cost. We surveyed members of Vermont’s ATV community and conducted interviews of private and public landowners and private and public companies. Our results showed that on average most ATV users were willing to pay to use state land, the Vermont ATV community contributes to Vermont’s economy, and trail construction and maintenance is a legitimate factor when considering the construction of building sustainable trails on public land. Our study concluded that on a small scale, ATV trails on Vermont state land appears to be economically sustainable.
Access: Yes
Literary Rights: Off
Major: Natural Resources Management and Policy
Year: 2012
Authors: Cory Campbell, Kyle Wagner