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Capstone Projects

A Comparison of Terrestrial Invertebrate Communities among Impacted, Minimally Impacted, and Reference Sites: Implications for Shoreline Vegetation Restoration

Fri, 12/14/2018 - 12:19
Abstract: The problem that this study attempts to address is the possibility of terrestrial invertebrate communities being negatively impacted by man-made disturbances along shorelines. This is a relevant issue because terrestrial invertebrates play multiple key roles in an ecosystem such as pollinating and serve as a food source for both aquatic and terrestrial organisms. The objective of this study is to provide a preliminary observation of terrestrial invertebrate communities between impacted, minimally impacted, and reference conditions sites so that further research can be conducted and add another aspect to shoreline management and restoration decisions. The impacted and minimally impacted sites that were sampled were located along the shore of Lower Saint Regis Lake on Paul Smith’s College property. The reference condition site sampled in this study was located along the shore of Black Pond on Paul Smith’s College VIC property. Invertebrates were sampled using pitfall traps and sweep nets. The invertebrates were then identified by taxonomic family and preserved in vials of alcohol. The findings of this study may imply that there may be inverse relationship between insect populations and arachnid populations based on impact level. Due to seasonal conditions of the Adirondacks, the results of this study could have been influenced by weather conditions, so a similar study conducted during a different season may produce vastly different results. The information collected in this study can be used to determine shoreline restoration and management decisions in the future.
Access: Yes
Literary Rights: Off
Major: Natural Resources Conservation and Management
Year: 2018
File Attachments: Final Capstone Report.docx
Authors: Ken Toepper, Isaac Stouffer, Quincie Grube

The Glenview Preserve Management Plan

Fri, 12/14/2018 - 19:43
Abstract: Abstract: The 238- acre Glenview Preserve consists of forests and fields located within Harrietstown, NY. The Adirondack Land Trust has purchased this land in order to restore, protect, and improve the land while utilizing it to its maximum potential. Our study investigates the best possible ways to make their goals reality. We will be looking into detail on how we can encourage human activity while still protecting the beautiful land from poor human practices. We will also be discussing the best possible ways to improve the land for wildlife. Here we will go into detail on how to make improvements for both the forest and the bog, these modifications will help make the land more suitable for wildlife. Our final goal will transform this land into a wonderful creation where wildlife can congregate together by using the land in the best way possible.
Access: Yes
Literary Rights: On
Major: Natural Resources Conservation and Management
Year: 2018
File Attachments: Capstone .docx
Authors: Brandon Dummitt
Alex Meyer
Robert Lutz

Conservation Easements

Fri, 12/14/2018 - 23:16
Abstract: The privatization of land through conservation easements serve an important role of protecting biodiversity and ecosystem services across various landscapes. This research investigated the purposes of conservation easements, how they are acquired, and the importance of strong landowner relationships and yearly monitoring. Numerous peer-reviewed articles and websites were analyzed for this research in addition to interviews with three participants, each at different land trusts (Harris Center for Conservation Education, The Nature Conservancy, and the Adirondack Land Trust). However, despite the interviewees working at different organizations, the process of easement acquisition and overall thoughts on conservation easements were very similar. My own experience as a Conservation Easement Monitor was also applied to this research, and two examples of completed monitoring reports from my time at the Harris Center accompany this document. Furthermore, this study suggests the need of individuals becoming involved with conservation easements either through volunteering, interning, or having their property become an easement at participating organizations.
Access: Yes
Literary Rights: On
Major: Natural Resources Conservation and Management
Year: 2018
Authors: Nicole DeCarolis

Lyme Disease in the Adirondacks: Using Domestic Canines as Sentinels for Human Risk

Tue, 12/05/2017 - 14:46
Abstract: Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi) is the most prevalent zoonotic disease in the United States. With an increase of cases every year in new areas, it is crucial that researchers and veterinarians use sentinels, such as canines, to determine the prevalence of Lyme disease in emerging areas where tick density may be low. The main objective of this study was to determine the annual infection rate of Lyme disease in canines in Franklin and Essex County. An immunologic assay was performed to determine percent of canines exposed to Lyme bacteria as well as timing of exposure. Thirty-four random blood samples were collected from a local veterinary office during routine health screenings, and analyzed for Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies. Out of the thirty-four samples, two canines were positive for OspC antibodies (indicator of early infection) and three were positive for OspF (indicator of chronic infection). The annual infection rate for the 2017 year was 5.9%.
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Literary Rights: Off
Major: Biology
Year: 2017
Authors: Ashley G. Hodge

Riparian log gardens: examination of vascular plant communities and moss on logs in waterbodies

Tue, 12/05/2017 - 19:51
Abstract: Microsites can play a major part in facilitating plant diversity. Specific physical characteristics of microsites can create favorable conditions for certain species by isolating them from competition or protecting them from herbivory. Plant communities and woody debris can also facilitate the growth of other plants. I examined relationships between moss and vascular plants on log gardens in waterbodies to determine correlations between these organisms. I hypothesized that riparian log gardens, large woody debris in lakes and ponds supporting mats of terrestrial vegetation, serve as sites that may harbor rare species or have high plant species diversity. I also examined the relationship between bryophytes and plant communities based on the idea that bryophytes influence microsite characteristics. Knowing where rare species are harbored and what microsites encourage high diversity are important for preserving species. I surveyed plants on large woody debris in lakes and ponds in the northern Adirondacks and calculated the richness and diversity of the communities in relation to the presence of mosses. I found that logs that supported moss mats had more plants. The mean species richness of the riparian log gardens was 8.6 for all plants and 6.3 for herbaceous species. Some significant positive correlations were found for log area, log hardness, mat area, mat depth, and vascular plant diversity.
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Literary Rights: Off
Major: Biology
Year: 2017
Authors: David R. Lampman

A Comparison of Macro-Invertebrate Communities in Different Substrates among Impacted and Minimally-Impacted Sites on Lower St. Regis Lake and Benchmark Sites on Black Pond

Wed, 05/03/2017 - 21:34
Abstract: Many shorelines today have been impacted by human activities which has resulted in changes in macro-aquatic invertebrate communities. Ecological restoration can be used in efforts to bring macro-aquatic invertebrates back into shorelines. However, data is needed to better understand how macro-aquatic invertebrates can be used in these efforts as indicator species to determine community structure health and function. This project compared the macro-aquatic invertebrate communities in impacted and minimally impacted sites located on Lower St. Regis Lake and benchmark sites located on Black Pond. The two objectives to this project were to 1) compare the species richness among impact levels and 2) compare the density among impact levels. Each impacted level has three sites and at each site ten samples were taken in a systematic way which resulted in 90 total samples. Samples were taken to the lab to be sorted and for macro-aquatic invertebrates could be identified to the family level. The macro-aquatic invertebrate community was different among each impact level. The overall family diversity was greater at the benchmark sites than the minimally impacted and impacted sites. Dominate substrate type that had a greater presence of different families were sites that had organic matter. The findings of this study create a more knowledge base which can be useful for future ecological restoration efforts on the impacted and minimally impacted areas located on Lower St. Regis Lake and to educate the public on the impacts on macro-aquatic invertebrates and their communities.
Access: Yes
Literary Rights: On
Major: Biology
Year: 2017
Authors: Amber St. Andrew

Assessment of Tree Planting Riparian Management along the Ausable and Boquet Rivers in New York State

Tue, 12/05/2017 - 14:28
Abstract: Ecological restoration is, in part, restoring degraded ecosystems. By adding riparian vegetation along degraded reaches of rivers and streams, ecologists can begin to restore the natural habitat and processes associated with that river or stream. Trees, shrubs and grasses can be very important in retaining stream bank soils, providing shade in the river and habitat for terrestrial species. Two programs called Trees for Tribs and Ausable River Association (AsRA), restore degraded riparian areas in the state of New York, including the Ausable and Bouquet Rivers in the Adirondack State Park. This study compared survival rates of the plantings in nine different locations along the Ausable River and one location along the Boquet River. The tree species, living status (survivorship), and stem density of the understory was recorded. The four AsRA planting sites and one U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service site planted saplings ranging from 6-8 feet in height, and the Trees for Tribs planted seedlings at the other five sites. It was found that there was no significant difference between the survival rates of the saplings in comparison to the survival rates of the seedlings (p-value = 0.37). In addition, there was no significant difference (p-value = 0.05) in the stem density measurements between sapling and seedling plots. It was also observed that records of tree plantings were either missing, incomplete or inaccurate from both Ausable River Association and Trees for Tribs.
Access: Yes
Literary Rights: Off
Major: Environmental Sciences
Year: 2017
Authors: Austin Tremblay

Living Machine ® Wastewater Treatment in Sólheimar

Tue, 12/05/2017 - 15:02
Abstract: As of 2014, Sólheimar Ecovillage in South Iceland began to experience inadequate sewage treatment. After a large earthquake, the community’s constructed wetland became damaged, freely expelling untreated wastewater into the surrounding watershed. After research, the Living Machine® system became the evident solution to help mitigate this issue. By using a case study of a Living Machine® system in South Burlington, Vermont, I was able to determine output estimates of individuals by gallons per day (GPD) and approximate a price for a Living Machine® with a greenhouse at $1,019, 694 USD. Different approaches Sólheimar could take to help make this project successful would be installing a flowmeter, applying for different grants, charging tourists to use the restrooms, and contacting the engineering company to discuss the current and future piping system in the village.
Access: Yes
Literary Rights: Off
Major: Environmental Sciences
Year: 2017
File Attachments: jsetter_final.pdf
Authors: Jessica Setter

A Comparison of Fall and Spring Minnow (Cyprinidae) Surveys to Assess Overwinter Changes in Community Composition in a Marshland of the Northern Adirondacks, NY

Wed, 12/06/2017 - 03:51
Abstract: Minnows are an integral component of a healthy aquatic ecosystem. However, minnows are very sensitive to habitat destruction and loss, changes in water quality, and over predation. As a result of its integral role, an unhealthy, or absent minnow population can wreak havoc on an ecosystem. The objectives are to compare minnow species richness and composition between spring and fall surveys for different regions in the marsh, compare minnow trap catch rates between fall and spring for each minnow species for different regions of the marsh, compare mean length of minnow species between fall and spring, and compare water temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and conductivity in the fall with that of late winter and post ice-out. The study location was Heron Marsh of New York’s Adirondack Park, which supports of variety of fish in the cyprinidae family. Water quality was collected using a YSI meter in all 4 seasons of the year, and minnows were sampled using galvanized steel minnow traps during the fall and spring. Nearly all sites saw an increase in cyprinid biodiversity and abundance. Long term monitoring should be established for more robust data that can in turn justify more solid conclusions.
Access: Yes
Literary Rights: Off
Major: Environmental Sciences
Year: 2017
File Attachments: Capstone Report
Authors: Brenden Blair

Developing A Wildlife Teaching Collection

Wed, 12/06/2017 - 13:14
Abstract: Wildlife specimens hold significant scientific and educational value at Paul Smith’s College through the preservation of essential biological information. Specimens allow for the better understanding of the past and present conditions of a species, and are a valuable teaching tool for all-inclusive wildlife education. However important, it is apparent that the accumulation of wildlife specimens is insufficient due to a lack of education surrounding the preservation of specimens and methods pertaining to the development of a specimen collection. In response, the procedural framework surrounding standard specimen preparation practices was analyzed and adjusted in order meet the specific needs of the institution. A comprehensive procedural manual was created with the intention of making specimen preparation a more approachable task for interested students, as well as to ensure continual growth of the wildlife teaching collection at Paul Smith’s College.
Access: Yes
Literary Rights: On
Major: Environmental Sciences
Year: 2017
Authors: Jacob McCourt, Benjamin Wrazen