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Capstone Projects

Monitoring the Zebra Mussel Invasion Front: Use of New Technology

Thu, 02/09/2012 - 15:39
Abstract: Zebra mussels are invasive mollusks that are affecting the well-being of the water bodies in the United States. This study uses environmental DNA (eDNA) is a sensitive early detection system that may be useful in monitoring their spread. The purpose of this study is to determine the effectiveness of eDNA technology in identifying infested water bodies, to determine if zebra mussel DNA is in the Adirondack water bodies not known to be infested, if the water chemistry of these water bodies is favorable for zebra mussel establishment, and if the eDNA technology is transferable to an institution like Paul Smith’s College. Eighteen lakes, all in New York State were sampled, fifteen of which are located in the Adirondack Park. DNA was extracted from water and plankton samples and species specific primers were used for PCR amplification to determine if zebra mussel DNA was present. Of seven samples taken from sites known to be infested, five of these tested positive for zebra mussel eDNA. Four lakes not known to be infested within the Park also tested positive for zebra mussel eDNA. Based on zebra mussel risk parameters (water chemistry) applied to 1,469 Adirondack water bodies, less than 3% are at risk of zebra mussel establishment. However it is possible that established populations could occur at microsites that may have locally high levels of calcium and higher pH.
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Major: Biology, Environmental Sciences, Environmental Studies, Fisheries and Wildlife Science, Forestry, Natural Resources Management and Policy
Year: 2011
File Attachments: The Author has selected not to publish this complete work.
Authors: Alexandria Bevilacqua, John Bishop, Charles Cain, Tyler Clark, Seth Crevison, Robert Culyer, Ryan Deibler, Brian DeMeo, Jonathan Eckert, Kirsten Goranowski, Joelle Guisti, Alan Jancef, Korinna Marino, Michelle Melagrano, KaitlynNedo, Joseph Nelson, Aaron Palmieri, Cole Reagan, John Scahill, JohnathanStrassheim, Scott Travis, Sarah Van Nostrand and Sarah Vella

Accommodation for the Deaf culture in hotels and recreational facilities

Mon, 12/05/2011 - 18:18
Abstract: Hotels and recreational facilities do not always have adequate accommodations, to help the Deaf culture communicate with the hearing world and take advantage of special services. Hotels and recreational facilities are improving their accommodation but more can be done to meet the needs for this demographic. This study will research what services are already available for the Deaf culture in hotels and recreational facilities. The outcome will determine what the Deaf culture prefers in accommodations, what hotels and recreation facilities offer, and new accommodations. This will help not only the Deaf culture, but everyone by breaking the language barrier between hearing and Deaf. The Deaf culture can benefit by utilizing new technology to have a more enjoyable experience at hotels and recreational facilities.
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Major: Culinary Arts and Service Management, Recreations, Adventure Travel and Ecotourism
Year: 2011
File Attachments: The Author has selected not to publish this complete work.
Authors: Virginia Schertel, Allison Moscato

Promoting Conservation of Biodiversity in the Adirondack Park Through Understanding and Engaging Stakeholders

Thu, 02/09/2012 - 11:31
Abstract: Anthropogenic disturbance of natural environments has led to the widespread loss of native biodiversity and degradation of ecosystems. It is increasingly recognized that addressing this “biodiversity crisis” entails understanding the societal drivers of unsustainable patterns of use. Conservation psychology is a new discipline that specifically focuses on understanding the linkages between human behavior and action and promoting a healthy and sustainable relationship between humans and nature. In this project, we employed principles of conservation psychology with the goal of improving the efficacy and efficiency of conservation of biodiversity in the Adirondack Park (AP). To meet this goal we employed three specific strategies. The first of these strategies was the use of surveys to assess the values, attitudes, and actions different stakeholders have in regards to conservation of biodiversity in the AP. These surveys were disseminated via both direct mailings and online, and included 30 questions. Our second strategy was to use discourse analysis to create a dictionary of terms and phrases employed in a positive, neutral, and negative light in regard to conservation of biodiversity. This entailed analysis of 30 emic accounts derived from opinion articles written by stakeholders in the AP, as well as analysis of a number of etic accounts drawn from online sources. Our third strategy was to use conservation psychology literature to assess ways in which the presentation of information and peer-dynamics influenced the responses of stakeholders towards conservation of biodiversity. Using the combination of these three strategies, we were able to provide a holistic understanding of how different stakeholders in the AP perceive and act towards biodiversity conservation; identify language that can be used to illicit a more positive response from these stakeholders; and identify specific tools based on principles of psychology that can encourage more active and effective engagement in conservation of biodiversity by different stakeholders. Our research findings will allow groups focusing on promoting conservation of biodiversity in the AP to be more effective and efficient in their work in the future.
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Major: Environmental Sciences, Fisheries and Wildlife Science, Forestry, Natural Resources Management and Policy, Recreations, Adventure Travel and Ecotourism
Year: 2011
Authors: Christopher Critelli, John Ghanime, Derek Johnson, Samantha Lambert, Justin Luyk, Matthew Parker, Robert Vite, Heather Mason, Jesse Warner, Ethan Lennox, Sarah Robbiano, David Mathis, David A. Patrick

Assessment of Anion Retention within Variable-Charged Eastern-Central Adirondack Forest Sub-Soils

Mon, 12/05/2011 - 10:20
Abstract: Anthropogenic influences such as acid deposition and road salting have caused shifts in both the pools and fluxes of nutrients within Earth’s biogeochemical cycles. The mobility of ions within forest soils is a very well documented concept; however the significant mechanisms affecting these patterns are poorly understood. One mechanism affecting anion retention is the electrostatic attraction to soil colloid surfaces, which is poorly documented in the Adirondack Park. Soils were sampled from both glacial till and outwash sites with predominantly deciduous canopies. The amount of anion retention was documented through multiple soil ion extractions over a pH gradient from 2 to 9. A loss on ignition procedure was used to understand the relationship between both organic matter or Fe/Al oxides and the overall soil surface charge. The estimated retention of Cl- and NO3- is 252 Kg/Ha and 440 Kg/Ha, respectively. Using hypothetical watersheds, we calculated that it will take 14 years to saturate the subsoil with NO3- and only 7 years to saturate with Cl-. These results suggest that the effects of acid deposition may be seen up to 14 years even after deposition has ceased. The relatively limited retention of Cl- however, may explain increased salinization of freshwater ecosystems.
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Major: Fisheries and Wildlife Science
Year: 2011
File Attachments: Capstone Final Paper.docx
Authors: John Mullins

High Ruffed Grouse (Bonasa umbellus) Relative Abundance in a Transitional, Early-Successional Habitat

Mon, 12/05/2011 - 10:34
Abstract: Abstract I recorded and examined ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus) flush data across upland hardwoods, lowland coniferous, and transitional habitats within the Adirondack State Park, New York. The flush data was recorded throughout September, 2011. Study site areas were accounted for to establish a flush per hectare rate. Contrary to my hypothesis the transitional habitat produced significantly more flushes (x2, p<0.0001) than the hardwoods and coniferous habitats. Lowland (conifer + transitional) and upland flush per hour rates were compared to a mean central Adirondack rate. I was unable to establish a significant conclusion from this comparison. A habitat suitability index indicated that stem density and the absence of aspen (Populus tremuloides, Populus gradidentata) appeared to be the limiting factors within the hardwoods habitat. Unanimous upland stem density suitability index values (SIV3) of zero resulted in an upland fall to spring cover value (FSCOV) of zero. If stem density was suitable throughout the upland habitat the quality of grouse cover would have increased significantly (FSCOV=0.9). However, aspen would have to be established to create quality grouse habitat with adequate cover and forage. Therefore, I concluded that as the upland forest stand ages and stem density increases, grouse densities are also likely to increase.
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Major: Fisheries and Wildlife Science
Year: 2011
File Attachments: Hamer_Matt
Authors: Matt Hamer

Burrow characteristics, nest success, and chick productivity of the black guillemot (Cepphus grylle) on two islands in the Gulf of Maine.

Mon, 12/05/2011 - 13:54
Abstract: Knowledge of the black guillemot Cepphus grylle population, nesting habitat preference, nest success and chick growth in North America is limited as the majority of studies on this species have been conducted in other northern countries such as Ireland and Greenland. Petit Manan Island and Eastern Brothers Island (Gulf of Maine, ME) each offer unique black guillemot nesting habitat from each other. Petit Manan offers predominately debris-like habitat (driftwood, buoys, etc.) and Eastern Brothers offers traditional rock-cliff habitat. I investigated the influence of burrow characteristics on nest success and chick growth on both islands. Burrow measurements were particle size of nest substrate, nest depth, nest cup diameter, light penetration, and neighbor distance. Nest success was scored by number of eggs hatched and chick growth was measured through body mass indices (mass/wing chord). Nest cup diameters were significantly larger in debris than in rock burrows which were typically tight crevices. No other characteristics were statistically significant different between debris or rock burrows. Consequently, nest success and chick growth was not affected by type of burrow.
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Major: Fisheries and Wildlife Science
Year: 2011
File Attachments: Capstone FINAL.docx
Authors: Chelsea DiAntonio

A Study of Cover Type and Habitat Use of Radio Collared White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in South Western New York State

Mon, 12/05/2011 - 18:43
Abstract: Two radio collared male white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were monitored from late February to early November of 2003 and two collared deer were monitored from late February to early November of 2007 in southwestern New York State. White-tailed deer used deciduous forest the most during the study, occupying deciduous forest 90% of the time in 2003 and between 76% and 85% in 2007. White-tailed deer preferred deciduous forest each season, a high preference for evergreen forest during the spring and moderate preference for summer seasons, and shrub scrub during the fall season. P values of <.0001 were found for all individual and seasonal preferences. White-tailed deer collared in 2003 averaged 266.6 ha (50% kernel) and 95% use of 1167.0 ha (95% kernel). Those collared in 2007 averaged 425.5 ha (50% kernel) and 1626.3 ha (95% kernel). Spring home ranges were 35% smaller than summer, and fall, due to food preference and snow melt on a west facing slope. Summer ranges were driven by water resources and fall by the onset of breeding season activities. Seasonal shifts in mean centers for geographic distribution for spring to summer ranges were shifted by 580 meters, while summer to fall shifts were half of the distance (283 m). Deciduous and evergreen forests are important preferred food and cover resources used by white-tailed deer in this region, with this understanding the management of white-tailed deer populations can be greatly influenced by the management of those resources that white-tailed deer require and prefer.
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Major: Fisheries and Wildlife Science
Year: 2011
File Attachments: Capstone_Final.docx
Authors: Joshua M. Matijas

Home Range Size and the Effects of Abiotic Conditions on Snowshoe Hares (Lepus americanus) in the Adirondacks.

Mon, 06/30/2014 - 19:01
Abstract: In northern boreal forest landscapes snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) are an integral part of the ecosystem. They significantly impact vegetation, predators, and other prey species through their interactions. By understanding how snowshoe hares move on the landscape and their home range sizes. It can allow for insight into how they modify their behavior in relation to the distribution of natural resources, and predators on the landscape. The purpose of this research is to determine how snowshoe hare modify movement rate within home range in relation to abiotic conditions. Research took place within the Adirondack Visitor’s Interpretive Center, in the Adirondack Park, in northern New York State. Radiotracking was done in average 8 minute intervals multiple times a day in order to detect movement rates. Snowshoe hare was radio tracked and their locations were triangulated using an arithmetic mean. The locations were used to generate a home range with kernel density estimators and minimum convex polygons. Average snow depth had a negative effect on movement rate (p-value=0.006, r2=0.548). Movement rate was not affected by temperature (p-value=0.341, r2=0.003). Movement rate was also not affected by wind speed (p-value=0.696, r2=0.0515). Proximity of tracking location to hare in relation to movement rate showed a slight relationship (p-value=0.0009, r2=0.162). The snowshoe hare moved an average of 14.044 m/min for the total of 11 tracking days. The average home range size of the snowshoe hare 179.168 ha. The average radio telemetry error was. The snowshoe hare spent more time in coniferous habitat in comparison to mixed-deciduous (Χ2= 9.07177, p-value=0.011). The effects of abiotic conditions were close to expectations, and the home range size was larger than other published home range size studies of snowshoe hare within the Adirondack Park.
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Major: Fisheries and Wildlife Science
Year: 2011
Authors: Jacob Dillon

Christian Growth Retreats as a Vehicle for Establishing Sustainable Spiritual Practice

Tue, 12/13/2011 - 14:46
Abstract: Abstract The goal of this project was to determine if the four basic Christian practices – prayer, fellowship, meditation, and scripture reading – are useful for providing a foundation for a sustainable spiritual enrichment and growth. This project took phenomenological approach in determining the results and findings from the data collected. A questionnaire was given to each participant to complete at the end of a one day retreat to record their impressions, experiences, and perceptions of the four practices. Also, a survey was conducted at two mainline denominational churches to compare results with the retreat participant group. The results of the research show that the majority of the participants do engage the four spiritual practices on ongoing bases. The themes that emerged from the four practices show how the practices are perceived as an enriching experience that supports spiritual growth.
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Major: Recreations, Adventure Travel and Ecotourism
Year: 2011
File Attachments: Capstone last Intro.docx
Authors: Wilbert Gamble

Changes in aquatic communities resulting from interactions between climate change and invasive aquatic plants in the Adirondacks.

Thu, 02/09/2012 - 11:26
Abstract: Global climate change can act synergistically with invasive species leading to shifts in ecosystem structure and function. We assessed how a rise in water temperature influenced the potential competitive advantage of an invasive aquatic plant, Eurasian watermilfoil, (Myriophyllum spicatum) over a co-occurring native species northern watermilfoil (M. sibiricum). We also examined the interrelationship between water temperature, watermilfoil, and the aquatic ecosystem including periphyton growth and zooplankton abundance. The study was conducted using replicated mesocosms (3785-liter), with water heaters used to provide a range of temperatures. We found that increasing water temperature promoted the likely competitive advantage of the invasive species, M. spicatum: Survival of M. sibiricum plants was lower than that of M. spicatum across all temperature treatments with a mean survival rate of 24% and 96% respectively. M. sibiricum also showed significantly slower rates of plant growth (mean growth of 3.3 cm compared to 7.6 cm for M. spicatum) and reduced vigor compared to M. spicatum, with an average of less than half the number of growing meristems. Zooplankton densities averaged over 20 times higher in mesocosms with M. sibiricum compared to those with the invasive M. spicatum. Periphyton biomass was best explained by water temperature with an increase in growth in warmer water. Our study confirms that in the face of global climate change, the invasive M. spicatum will continue to exert dominance over its native counterpart. Our results also provide compelling evidence that the combined effects of climate change and invasive aquatic plants can dramatically alter aquatic ecosystems.
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Major: Environmental Sciences, Fisheries and Wildlife Science, Forestry, Natural Resources Management and Policy
Year: 2010
Authors: Nicholas Boudreau, Zachary Bozic, Geoffrey S. Carpenter, David M. Langdon, Spencer R. LeMay, Shaun M. Martin, Reid M. Mourse, Sarah L. Prince, Kelli M. Quinn, David A. Patrick